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Plate Tectonics


Convergent Boundary An actively deforming region where two (or More) tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide.
Divergent Boundary A linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.
Transform Boundary fault whose relative motion is predominantly horizontal in either sinistral or dextral direction. (slide sideways past each other)
Density the degree of compactness of a substance.
Trench a long, narrow ditch
Island Arc a curved chain of volcanic islands located at a tectonic plate margin, typically with a deep ocean trench on the convex side
Volcano a mountain or hill, typically conical, having a crater or vent through which lava, rock fragments, hot vapor, and gas are being or have been erupted from the earth
Earthquake a sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action
Seismic waves an elastic wave in the earth produced by an earthquake or other means
Subduction Zone sites of high rates of volcanism, earthquakes, and mountain building
Radioactive Isotope any of several species of the same chemical element with different masses
Pangea hypothetical supercontinent that included all current land masses, believed to have been in existence befoe the continents broke apart during the Triassic and Jurassic Periods
Continental Drift the gradual movement of the continents across the earth's surface through geological time.
Radiation the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles that cause ionization
Conduction the process by which heat or electricity is directly transmitted through a substance when there is a difference of temperature or of electrical potential between adjoining regions, without movement of the material.
Convection the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.
Convection Current a current in a fluid that results from convection
Asthenosphere the upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, in which there is relatively; low resistance to plastic flow and convection is thought to occur.
Lithosphere the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle
Mid-ocean ridge a long, seismically active submarine ridge system situated in the middle of an ocean basin and marking the site of the upwelling of magma associated with seafloor spreading.
SONAR a system for the detection of objects under water and for measuring the water's depth by emitting sound pulses and detecting or measuring their return after being reflected
Sea-Floor Spreading the formation of new areas of oceanic crust, which occurs through the uwelling of magma at midocean ridges and its subsequent outward movement on either side.
Created by: PLHSScience9