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MrsVanDyke Chapter 5


Learning Lasting change in behavior or mental processes that result from experience
Habituation Learning not to respond to the repeated presentation of a stimulus
Mere Exposure Effect A learned preference for stimuli to which we have been previously exposed
Behavioral Learning Forms of learning, such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning, that can be described in terms of stimuli and responses
Classical Conditioning A form of behavioral learning in which a previous neutral stimulus acquires the power to elicit the same innate reflex produced by another stimulus
Neutral Stimulus Any stimulus that produces no conditioned response prior to learning
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) In classical conditioning, the stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response
Unconditioned Response (UCR) In classical conditioning, the response elicited by an unconditional stimulus without prior learning
Acquisition The initial learning stage in classical conditioning, during which the conditioned response comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit the conditioned response
Conditioned Response (CR) In classical conditioning, a response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus
Extinction The weakening of a conditioned response in the absene of an unconditioned stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a time delay
Stimulus Generalization The extension of a learned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus
Stimulus Discrimination A change in responses to one stimulus but not to stimuli that are similar
Experimental Neurosis a pattern of erratic behavior resulting from a demanding discrimination learning task, typically one that involves aversive stimuli
Taste-Aversion Learning A biological tendency in which an organism learns, after a single experience, to avid a food with a certain taste, if eating it is followed by illness
Operant Conditioning Form of behavioral learning in which the probability of a response is changed by its consequences--that is, by the stimuli that follow the response
Law of Effect The idea that responses that produced desirable results would be learned, or "stamped" into the organism
Reinforcer Condition that occurs after a response and strenghtens that response
Positive Reinforcement Stimulus presented after a response and increasing the probability of that response happening again
Negative Reinforcement Removal of an unpleasant or aversive stimulus, contingent on a particular behavior
Reinforcement Contingencies Relationships between a response and the changes in stimulation that follow the response
Shaping Operant learning technique in which a new behavior is produced by reinforcing responses that are similar to the desired response
Intermittent Reinforcement Type of reinforcement schedule by which some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced
Extinction A process by which a response that has been learned is weakened by the absence or removal of reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement Programs specifying the frequency and timing of reinforcements
Ration Schedule Program by which reinforcement depends on the number of correct responses
Interval Schedule Program by which reinforcement depends on the time interval elapsed since the last reinforcement
Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedules Programs by which reinforcement is contingent on a certain, unvarying number of responses
Variable Ration (VR) Schedules Programs by which the number of responses required for a reinforcement varies from trial to trial
Fixed Interval (FI) Schedules Programs by which reinforcement is contingent on certain, fixed time periods
Variable Interval (VI) Schedules Programs by which the time period between reinforcements varies from trial to trial
Primary Reinforcers Reinforcers, such as food and sex, that have an innate basis because of their biological value to an organism
Secondary Reinforcers (Conditioned Reinforcers) Stimuli, such as money or tokens, that acquire their reinforcing power by a learned association with primary reinforcers
Token Economy Therapeutic method, based on operant conditioning, by which individuals are rewarded with tokens, which act as secondary reinforcers. The tokens can be redeemed for a variety of rewards and privileges
Premack Principle Concept developed by David Premack, that a more-preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity
Punishment An aversive stimulus which, occurring after a response, diminishes the strength of that response
Positive Punishment Application of an aversive stimulus after a response
Negative Punishment (Ommission Training) Removal of an appetitive stimulus after a response, leading to a decrease in behavior
Insight Learning Form of cognitive learning, originally describe by the Gestalt psychologists, in which problem solving occurs by means of sudden reorganization of perceptions
Cognitive Map
Created by: MrsVanDyke
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