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CSU Gestalt 2015

Chapter 5 Openstax: Gestalt Principle of Psychology

wavelength length of a wave from one peak to the next peak
visible spectrum portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see
vestibular sense contributes to our ability to maintain balance and body posture
vertigo spinning sensation
umami taste for monosodium glutamate
tympanic membrane eardrum
trough lowest point of a wave
trichromatic theory of color perception color vision is mediated by the activity across the three groups of cones
transduction conversion from sensory stimulus energy to action potential
top-down processing interpretation of sensations is influenced by available knowledge, experiences, and thoughts
timbre sound’s purity
thermoception temperature perception
temporal theory of pitch perception sound’s frequency is coded by the activity level of a sensory neuron
taste bud grouping of taste receptor cells with hair-like extensions that protrude into the central pore of the taste bud
subliminal message message presented below the threshold of conscious awareness
stapes middle ear ossicle; also known as the stirrup
similarity things that are alike tend to be grouped together
signal detection theory change in stimulus detection as a function of current mental state
sensory adaptation not perceiving stimuli that remain relatively constant over prolonged periods of time
sensorineural hearing loss failure to transmit neural signals from the cochlea to the brain
sensation what happens when sensory information is detected by a sensory receptor
Ruffini corpuscle touch receptor that detects stretch
rod specialized photoreceptor that works well in low light conditions
retina light-sensitive lining of the eye
absolute threshold minimum amount of stimulus energy that must be present for the stimulus to be detected 50% of the time
afterimage continuation of a visual sensation after removal of the stimulus
amplitude height of a wave
basilar membrande thin strip of tissue within the cochlea that contains the hair cells which serve as the sensory receptors for the auditory system
binaural cue two-eared cue to localize sound
binocular cue cue that relies on the use of both eyes
binocular disparity slightly different view of the world that each eye receives
blind spot point where we cannot respond to visual information in that portion of the visual field
bottom-up processing system in which perceptions are built from sensory input
closure organizing our perceptions into complete objects rather than a series of parts
cochela fluid-filled, snail-shaped structure that contains the sensory receptor cells of the auditory system
cochlear implant electronic device that consists of a microphone, a speech processor, and an electrode array to directly stimulate the auditory nerve to transmit information to the brain
conductive hearing loss failure in the vibration of the eardrum and/or movement of the ossicles
cone specialized photoreceptor that works best in the bright light conditions and detects color
congenital deafness deafness from birth
congenital insensitivity to pain (congenital analgesia) genetic disorder that results in the inability to experience pain
cornea transparent converting over the eye
deafness partial or complete inability to hear
decibel (dB) logarithmic unit of sound intensity
depth perception ability to perceive depth
electromagnetic spectrum all the electromagnetic radiation that occurs in out environment
figure-ground relationship segmenting our visual world into figure and ground
fovea small indentation in the retina that contains cones
frequency number of waves that pass a given point in a given time period
Gestalt psychology field of psychology based on the idea that the whole is different from the sum of its parts
pupil small opening in the eye through which light passes
proximity things that are close to one another tend to be grouped together
proprioception perception of body position
principle of closure organize perceptions into complete objects rather than as a series of parts
place theory of pitch perception different portions of the basilar membrane are sensitive to sounds of different frequencies
pitch perception of a sound’s frequency
pinna visible part of the ear that protrudes from the head
photoreceptor light-detecting cell
pheromone chemical message sent by another individual
perceptual hypothesis educated guess used to interpret sensory information
perception way that sensory information is interpreted and consciously experienced
peak (also, crest) highest point of a wave
pattern perception ability to discriminate among different figures and shapes
Pacinian corpuscle touch receptor that detects transient pressure and higher frequency vibrations
optic nerve carries visual information from the retina to the brain
optic chiasm X-shaped structure that sits just below the brain’s ventral surface; represents the merging of the optic nerves from the two eyes and the separation of information from the two sides of the visual field to the opposite side of the brain
opponent-process theory of color perception color is coded in opponent pairs: black-white, yellow-blue, and red-green
olfactory receptor sensory cell for the olfactory system
olfactory bulb bulb-like structure at the tip of the frontal lobe, where the olfactory nerves begin
nociception sensory signal indicating potential harm and maybe pain
neuropathic pain pain from damage to neurons of either the peripheral or central nervous system
Meniere's disease results in a degeneration of inner ear structures that can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, and an increase in pressure within the inner ear
monocular cue cue that requires only one eye
monaural cue one-eared cue to localize sound
Merkel's disk touch receptor that responds to light touch
Meissner's corpuscle touch receptor that responds to pressure and lower frequency vibrations
malleus middle ear ossicle; also known as the hammer
linear pespective perceive depth in an image when two parallel lines seem to converge
lens curved, transparent structure that provides additional focus for light entering the eye
knesthesia perception of the body's movement through space
just noticeable difference difference in stimuli required to detect a difference between the stimuli
iris colored portion of the eye
interaural timing difference small difference in the time at which a given sound wave arrives at each ear
interaural level difference sound coming from one side of the body is more intense at the closest ear because of the attenuation of the sound wave as it passes through the head
inflammatory pain signal that some type of tissue damage has occurred
incus middle ear ossicle; also known as the anvil
inattentional blindness failure to notice something that is completely visible because of a lack of attention
hertz (Hz) cycles per second; measure of frequency
hair cell auditory receptor cell of the inner ear
good continuation (continuity) we are more likely to perceive continuous, smooth flowing lines rather than jagged, broken lines
Created by: gestalt