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Women & Gender


Biological determinism A general theory holding that a group’s biological or genetic makeup shapes its social, political, and economic destiny.
Black Feminism (See Patricia Hill Collins essay on “Black Feminist Thought”) Feminism that centers on Black women as agents of knowledge in confronting race, gender, and class oppressions. A key component is that in order to create meaningful and significant change, there must be an emphasis on both the changed consciousness of in
Cisgender This term refers to people whose sex assignment at birth corresponds to their gender identity and expression.
Colorism Prejudice or discrimination based on the relative lightness or darkness of the skin. Generally a phenomenon occurring within one’s own ethnic group. (Berry & Duke, Dark Girls documentary)
Cultural capital The exchange and accumulation of cultural goods relating to the body (i.e. a suntan) and mind (knowledge), institutional forms (i.e. educational qualifications), and objects (i.e. books).
Discrimination Differential treatment against less powerful groups by those in positions of dominance (Kirk & Okazawa-Rey)
Dominant culture The values, symbols, means of expression, language, and interests of a group of people in power in society.
Essentialism The view that some people have some inherent essence, or characteristics and qualities that define them.
Fat Activism A social justice movement that focuses on ending discrimination based on size. It is also concerned with the intersections of body size and other forms of oppression such as racism, sexism, classism, and ableism. (Stacy Bias)
Gender expression The ways in which people externally communicate their gender identity to others through behavior, clothing, haircut, voice, and other forms of presentation.
Gender fluidity A flexible range of gender expression, with interests and behaviors that may even change from day to day.
Gender identity One's innermost concept of self as male or female or both or neither—how individuals perceive themselves and what they call themselves. This can be the same or different than the sex assigned at birth.
Gender roles The roles and behaviors considered culturally appropriate for women or men.
Gendered homophobia Contemptuous acts, attitudes, and speaking against gays or lesbians but that target only one gender.
Hegemonic feminism A focus or pattern within feminisms that deemphasizes or ignores a class and race analysis, generally sees equality with men as the goal of feminism, and has an individual rights-based, rather than justice-based vision for social change.
Hegemonic masculinity (Raewyn W. Connell) A form of masculinity that dominates over other masculinities, implicitly or violently. The hegemonic form of masculinity is usually situated as the most honored or desired because of its connections to patriarchal power. It's not necessarily the most com
Hegemony A dominant organizing principle or the permeation throughout society of the ruling elite’s values, attitudes, beliefs, and morality. To the extent that people internalize this prevailing consciousness, it appears natural.
Heteronormativity The portrayal of the institution of heterosexuality, its norms and practices, as natural and inevitable (Kirk & Okazawa-Rey)
Heterosexism Attitudes, actions, and institutional practices that subordinate people on the basis of their gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, or queer orientation and identification (Kirk & Okazawa-Rey)
Homophobia (UCSD dictionary) The irrational fear or hatred of homosexuals, homosexuality, or any behavior or belief that does not conform to rigid sex role stereotypes. It is this fear that enforces sexism as well as heterosexism. Pascoe also argues that homophobia is also gendered a
Ideology Ideas, attitudes, and values that represent the interests of a group of people. The dominant ideology comprises the ideas, attitudes, and values that represent the dominant groups.
Institutionalized racism The systematic distribution of resources, power, and opportunities in and through institutions such as the government, corporations, academics, etc, that excludes or disenfranchises people of color.
Internalized oppression (Kirk & Okazawa-Rey) Attitudes and behavior of some oppressed people that reflect the negative, harmful, stereotypical beliefs of the dominant group directed at them. An example of internalized sexism in the view of some women that they and other women are inferior to men, wh
Intersex (From UC Berkeley's Gender Equity Center) Intersex is a set of medical conditions that feature congenital anomaly of the reproductive and sexual system. That is, intersex people are born with "sex chromosomes," external genitalia, or internal reproductive systems that are not considered "standard
Liberal Feminism A type of feminism that understands the oppression of women in terms of unequal access to existing political, economic, and social institutions.
Masculinities (--Raewyn Connell) Masculinities do not mean the same thing as "men," but they concern men within a gender order. They are patterns of practice by which people (not just men) engage that position. They are multiple, change across history, and have internal complexities and
Multiracial Feminism (Baca Zinn and Thornton Dill) A feminist framework that is not focused on a singular or unified feminism but a body of knowledge situating men and women in multiple systems of domination. U.S. multiracial feminism encompasses several emergent perspectives developed primarily by women
Patriarchy A family, social group, or society in which men hold power and are dominant figures. Patriarchal power in the US plays out in the family, the economy, the media, religion, law, electoral politics, and so on. (Kirk & Okazawa-Rey)
Post-colonial Feminism A perspective that critiques Western imperialism and imperialist tendencies of Western feminism and emphasizes historically defined colonial power relations that provide a foundational context for women’s lives and struggles for change.
Postmodern Feminism A type of feminism that critiques and resists universalizing claims about gender, experience, race, etc. The category of “woman” is a constantly shifting signifier.
Prejudice A preconceived judgement or opinion, usually based on limited information (Beverly Tatum)
Privilege Benefits and power from institutional inequalities. Individuals and groups may be privileged without realizing, recognizing, or even wanting it. (Kirk & Okazawa-Rey)
Racism (Kirk & Okazawa-Rey)** Racial prejudice and discrimination that are supported by institutional power and authority. In the US, racism is based on the ideology of white (European) superiority and is used to the advantage of white people and the disadvantage of peoples of color.
Radical Feminism A type of feminism that focuses on men’s control of women’s sexuality and reproduction and critiques gender roles within relationships, sexuality, violence, and institutions. Works to eradicate patriarchy and create women-centered ways of living.
Situated knowledge Knowledge and ways of knowing that are specific to a particular historical and cultural context and life experiences.
Social constructionism The view that concepts that appear to be immutable and often solely biological, such as gender, race, and sexual orientation, are instead defined by human beings and can vary, depending on cultural or historical contexts.
Socialist Feminism A type of feminism that understands the oppression of women in terms of two interconnected and reinforcing systems: patriarchy and capitalism.
Standpoint theory (MORE) The view that different social and historical situations give rise to very different group and individual experiences and theories about those experiences. Standpoint shapes a person’s view of the world and what she or he may or may not be able to compreh
Stigma A mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person (OED)
Structural racism Policies and practices that are in place through institutions, relationships, and expectations that perpetuate colorism (Dr. Cheryl Grills, Dark Girls documentary)
Subjugated knowledge Knowledge generated from positions of subordination.
Symbolic capital Recognizable qualities, attributes, or objects that are given value (capital) within dominant culture or historical contexts. For example, Nakano-Glenn discusses the conceptualization of skin color as a form of symbolic capital.
Transgender This term is sometimes used as an umbrella to describe anyone whose identity or behavior falls outside of stereotypical gender norms. More narrowly defined, it refers to an individual whose gender identity does not match their assigned birth gender.
Transnational Feminism Feminism without borders that links scholars and activists in “non-colonized” dialogue across differences. This includes a commitment to avoid reproducing inequalities among feminists that parallel those among nations.
Judith Lorber "The Social Construction of Gender" --Gender is a contruct & society constructs it.--
Allan Johnson "Patriarchy, the system" D2L
Combahee River Collective "A Black feminist statement" D2L
Patricia Hill Collins "Black Feminist Thought" -Black feminist thought demonstrates Black women's emerging power as agents of knowledge. By portraying African-American women as self-defined, selt-reliant individuals confronting race, gender, & class oppression.
Peggy McIntosh "White Priviledge: Unpackingthe invisible knapsack" Brings up the various advantages every white person gets w/out even realizing it. She shows that racism is a part of everyday life & lists 26 situations in which white people have a privilege.
George Lipsitz *** "The possessive investment in whiteness" -Unflinching look at white supremacy, he argues that racism is a matter of interests as well as attitudes, a problem of property as well as pigment. Whiteness is a structured advantage that has unfair gains & unea
Beverly Tatum "The complexity of identity" Who we are is shaped by how we see ourselves & how others see us. Ppl tend to overlook their dominant traits and focus on traits that make them subordinates to the dominant group. The norms of society as usually set by the dominant groups. **Looking-glass
Eduardo Bonilla-Silva "The central frames of color-blind racism" D2L -The 4 frames Abstract liberalism, Minimization of racism, Cultural racism, & Naturalization of racism.
Evelyn Nakano Glenn "Yearing for lightness:Transnational Circuits in the Marketing & Consumption of Skin lighteners" 100
Ann Arnett Ferguson "Naughty by Nature" 435
Nomy Lamm "Its a big fat Revolution" 67 -
Leslie Feinberg "We are all works progress" -She discusses peopel should have the right to choose between “pink or blue tinted gender categories...”The essay provides her personal ex: of being a trans. She explains how she was dying of endocarditis in 1995 to 1996.
C.J. Pascoe "Dude your a fag: adolescent masculinity and the fag discourse" 464
Thomas Rogers "Were all intersex" 505
Dorothy Allison "A question of class" -struggle with growing up as a child of the working class. But a lesbian who was trying to work her way out of the working class.
Gloria Anzaldúa "Borderlands/La frontera" -She discusses her ability to leave the family, life and culture she grew up, to live the life she decided. She is a Chicana lesbian, from Texas. Anzaldua focuses on the idea of half and halfs.
Maxine Baca Zinn & Bonnie Thornton Dill "Theorizing difference from masculinities and globilization" 38
Beverly Tatum "Defining Racism" Tatum defines racism as a system of advantage based on race; not just prejudice but a system. Passive Racism versus Active Racism
Created by: OU0
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