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Intro. to Psychology

SLC Brockville Midterm Review Y2S3

TermDefinition
Psychology The discipline concerned with behaviour and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical and mental state and external environment; tests assumptions ... uses empirical research.
Empirical research Evidence gathered by careful observation, experimentation, or measurement.
Critical Thinking The ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgements on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence.
Eight Guidelines of Critical Thinking (1) Ask Questions, (2) Define Terms, (3) Examine Evidence, (4) Analyze Assumptions and Biases, (5) Avoid Emotional Reasoning, (6) Don’t Oversimplify, (7) Consider Other Interpretations and (8) Tolerate Uncertainty.
Phrenology A discredited theory that different brain areas amount for specific personality traits (did not use empirical methods and/or evidence).
Wilhelm Wundt Established first psychological laboratory; found that mental processes could be measured.
Three Early Psychologies Structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis.
Structuralism Emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements of the brain; studied basic structures and components of the mind and looked at dimensions of feeling and described them using introspection.
Introspection Observe, analyze and describe own sensations, mental images and emotional reactions (looking inside).
Functionalism Emphasized interaction between the mind and behaviour in adapting to the outside environment (how and why something happens).
William Jones on Functionalism "The mind is constantly changing".
Psychoanalysis A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy; physical symptoms due to emotional trauma or conflicts from early childhood; emphasizes unconcious motives and desires.
Max Wertheimer (Gestalt Psychology) Emphasized that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts (may not notice each detail but will perceive the whole) ... mind makes sense of some things and eliminates things that don't make sense.
Major Psychological Perspective (1) Biological perspective, (2) learning perspective, (3) cognitive perspective, (4) socio-cultural perspective, and (5) psychodynamic perspective.
Biological Perspective Approach that emphasizes how bodily events affect behaviour, feelings, and thoughts.
Created by: 934382573321500