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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Science Study natural world
Observing Use 1 or more to gather information
Inferring Explaining Observations
Predicting Making forecast based on past
Chemistry Study properties of matter
Physics Matter of energy and how to interact
Scientific Inquiry Different ways to study
Hypothesis Explaining observations
Parameter Factor in experiment
Manipulated Variable Change during experiment
Responding Variable A perimeter in experiment
Controlled Experiment Experiment in time
Data Facts and figures that gather information
Communicating Experiment with others
Model Picture of object or process
Scientific Theory Explaining observtions
Scientific Law Rule of nature
Length The distance from one to another
Weight A measure of the force of gravity on an object
Mass A measure of how much matter is in an object
Volume The amount of space that matter occupies
Meniscus The curved upper surface that matter is an object
Estimate An approximation of a number based on reasonable assumptions
Accuracy How close a measurement is to the true
Reproducibility How close a group of measurements are to each other
Significant Figures Digits that carry meaning
Precision A measure of the exactess of measurement
Graph A picture of information from one data table
Horizontal Axis A line that runs left to right
Vertical Axis A line that runs up and down
Origin The (0,0) point on a line graph
Coordinate A pair of numbers used to determine the position of a point on a graph
Data Point A point on a graph showing the location of a piece of data
Line of best fit A smooth line that reflects the general pattern in a graph
Linear Graph A line graph in which the data points yield
Slope The steepness of a line on a graph
Nonlinear Graph A line graph in which the data points do not fall
Figures Digits that carry measurements
Motion The state in which one objects distance from another is changing
Reference Point An object is in motion if it changes position relative to a reference point
Distance The length of a path between two points
Displacement Length and direction that an object has moved from its starting point
Vector A measurable quantity that consists of both magnitude and direction
Speed The distance an object travels in a certain period of time without regard to direction
Average Speed The overall rate of speed at which an object moves
Instantaneous Speed The speed of an object at any given instant
Velocity Speed in a given direction
Slope Steepness on a line graph
Geocentric In a geocentric system earth is at the center of the revoling planets and stars
Heliocentric In a heliocentric system eath ad the other planets revolve around the sun
Ellipse Ellipse is an oval shape which may be elongated or nearly circular
Moon A natural satellite that revolves around a planet
Astronomical Unit A unit of measurements equal to earths average distance from the sun, about 150 million km
Nuclear Fusion Two atomic nuclei combine forming a larger more massive nucleus and releasing energy
core the central region of the sun where nuclear fusions take place
Radiation Zone A region of very tightly packed gas in the suns interior where energy is transferred mainly in the form of light
Convention Zone is the outer most layer of the suns interior
Photosphere The inner layer of the suns atmosphere
Chromosphere The greek word chroma means "color"
Corona Means "crown" in latin
Solar Wind A stream of electricity charged particles that emanate from the suns corona
sun spots A dark area of gas on the suns surface that is cooler
Prominences Often links difference parts of sunspot regions
solar flares eruptions
terrestrial planets the name often given to the four inner planets
Greenhouse effect The trapping of heat by a planets atmosphere
acceleration The rate at which velocity changes with time
work a word that describes what is done on an object when a force is exerted on an object that causes it to move
energy the ability to do work or cause change
kinetic energy an object depends on both its mass and its speed
potential energy this type of energy has the potential to do work
elastic potential energy an archer pulling back on an arrow changes the shape f the bow
mechanical energy an objects combined kinetic energy and potential
Created by: Christopher_Pena