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Pharmacology Ch. 6

Anesthetics and Narcotis

consists of the brain and spinal cord Central Nervous System (CNS)
consists of the afferent and efferent system Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
composed of the nerves and sense organs that bring information to the CNS afferent system
made up of the nerves that dispatch information from the CNS efferent system
regulates activities of structures that are not under voluntary control and below the level of consciousness. Controls respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature, metabolism, blood glucose, pupil size, GI mobility, sweating Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
concerned with skeletal muscles, which perform voluntary actions Somatic Nervous
major neurotransmitters Acetylcholine, GABA, Dopamine, Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Serotonin, Glutamate
neurotransmitter that starts movement Acetylcholine
neurotransmitter that regulates the message delivery system of the brain GABA
Neurotransmitter that stop movement and change mood Dopamine
Neurotransmitters that is the fight or flight Epinephrine (adrenaline) and Norepinephrine
Neurotransmitter that is emotional responses to certain stimuli Serotonin
Neurotransmitter that is the learning and memory Glutamate
constrict blood vessels alpha receptors
expands the blood vessels, lower blood pressure alpha blocker
increase the heart rate and contractive force of the heart Beta-1 receptors
influence bronchodilation Beta- 2 receptors
not good for asthma Beta blockers
Constipation, decrease sweating, decreased urination, dilated pupil, dry eyes, dry mouth side effects of anticholinergic drugs
effects of anesthesia that all nerve tissue function in the peripheral system is depressed Nervous system
effect of anesthesia that generally irritates the respiratory tract and salivary glands, causing increased mucus secretion, coughing, and spasm. Respiratory system
effect of anesthesia that causes urinary retention Endocrine System
effect of anesthesia that causes the activity of cardiac muscle to reduce which will reduce blood pressure Cardiovascular system
effect of anesthesia that causes muscle relaxation Skeletal Muscular system
effect of anesthesia that can cause nausea and vomiting GI system
the goals of anesthesia are: amnesia, adequate muscle relaxation, adequate ventilation, and pain control
general anesthesia is characterized by 4 reversible actions unconsciousness, analgesia, skeletal muscle relaxation, and amnesia
alleviate pain and depress the respiratory center narcotics
most used preoperative sedatives, relieve anxiety and act as an anticonvulsant benzodiazepines
antiemetic properties and have sedative effects phenothiazines
rare but serious side effects of anesthesia and is associated with a marked increase in intracellular calcium levels. rapid rise in body temperature, irregular heart beat and breathing Malignant hyperthermia
treatment of malignant hyperthermia involves the IV fusion of __________ Dantrium
not a potent anesthetic and is usually used with other agents nitrous oxide
a mild stimulant of salivary secretions and high concentrations may stimulate seizures in susceptible patients, causes uterine relaxation which prohibits its use during labor Ethrane
produces a high incidence of moderate to severe upper respiratory irritation for children and is therefor not recommended for use in the pediatric population for induction of anesthesia Suprane
Other inhaled anesthetics Forane and Ultane
used extensively for open-heart surgery. it also comes as a lozenge and used in children Fentanyl
patients must be continuously monitored Lusedra
patient appears to be awake but neither responds to pain nor remembers the procedure Ketamine
changes urine color to green, pink, and rust. Must be discarded after 12 hours. stable in glass containers Diprivan
in patient who are awake these agents may cause excitement or delirium in the presence of pain Pentothal
Other injectable anesthetics Amidate and Versed
antagonizes benzodiazepines romazicon
antagonist that competes for the opiate receptor sites and is a narcotic Narcan
paralyze the patient skeletal muscles, which enables the surgeon to operate with greater accuracy and safety, should always be flagged neuromuscular blocking agents
Neuromuscular blocking agent "sux" Succinylcholine
anticholinesterase agents Mestinon
produces a transient and reversible loss of sensation in a defined area of the body local anesthesia
in response to the activity of the anesthetic, functions is lost in the following order: Pain perception, temperature sensation, touch sensation, proprioception,skeletal muscle tone
this should not be used as a vasoconstrictor in areas of fingers, toes, ears, nose, or external genitals Epinephrine
comes as a patch, worn for 12 hours and then removed for 12 hours Lidocaine
what is considered as the fifth vital sign pain
pain that usually disappears when the body heals acute
pain that lasts for more than three months chronic nonmalignant
accompanies malignant disease chronic malignant
physiologic responses to pain catabolism, delayed stomach and bowel function, impaired immune response, increased autonomic activity, negative emotional response, water retention
pain modulating chemical that tends to cause insensibility or stupor narcotic
narcotics have the following effects analgesia, sedation, euphoria and dysphoria
Created by: Blogan



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