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Chapter Thirteen

Comparative Psychology

Natural selection has favored species that are activated only by key _____ and which _____ their behavior in an adaptive way. stimuli, organize
Animal nervous systems have _____ centers which communicate with one another. command
They are either single bundles of cells or interconnected batteries capable of _____ _____. decision making
Each center has specific _____. Some activate and others _____ but they act in coordinated manner. responsibility, inhibit
The preying mantis has three basic motion states. It remains motionless, walks, and grasps. Motion is controlled by _____ or nerve cell clusters in each of its body segments. ganglia
Roeder demonstrated that the control of muscles in each segment was controlled by the segmental ganglion by _____ the segment from the rest of the nervous system. severing
Roeder thought that the brain or protocerebral ganglion of the head _____ neural activity in the segments. blocks
When the connection between the brain and segmental ganglia was severed, the mantis performed simultaneous conflicting motions of _____ and _____. walking, grasping
If the entire head was removed (eliminates the protocerebral ganglion and the subesophageal ganglion) the mantis became motionless. The protocerebral ganglion sends out signals which tells the _____-_____ ganglion to stop inhibiting motion. subesophageal
Nature has provided species with internal clock mechanisms since certain activities are performed more safely at certain times of days. The two competing theories of biological clocks are that they are environmentally _____ or _____. independent, dependent
The clock that runs on a 24 hour clock has a _____ rhythm. Because the cycle is independent of environmental cues, it is considered _____-_____. circadian, free-running
Although circadian clocks are basically free-running they can be influence or _____ to external cues indicating that they have an environmentally _____ component. entrained, dependent
The internal clock in crickets controls levels of _____ hormone which in turn related to the foraging behavior of two _____ of a species of cricket. juvenile, polyphenisms
In mammals, circadian rhythms are located in the _____ _____ _____. super chiasmatic nucleus
The SCN is located in the hypothalamus which connects to the _____. retina
The basis of the rhythmic activity seems to be the activity of two genes called _____ and _____. per, tau
Per and tau work in a _____ manner over a 24 hour period so that when the product of the per gene called _____ in abundance, the tau gene degrades the quantity of the produced protein. reciprocal, PER
The key clock genes are found in species ranging from insects to humans. They may have originated ______ million years ago in a common ancestral form. 550
The per gene is complex. The DNA contains thousands of base sequences and amino acids. Humans with a single per mutation typically fall asleep at 7:30 and wake up at _____ . 4:30
The chemical that the SCN sends as a signal to control activity cycles is thought to be a protein called _____. prokinectin2
The production of PH2 depends on the information that the _____ receives from the retina about light-dark cycles. The presence of the environmentally dependent element in the biological clock allows synchronization of activity with seasonal change. SCN
Annual cycles like reproduction and migration in birds are determined by a _____ rhythm. circannual
Experimental tests of annual cycles as an internal clock require animals to be kept under constant conditions for _____ years. two
One experiment kept _____ golden-mantled ground squirrels in captivity for the required period of years. blinded
Annual cycles can work in conjunction with _____ factors. The breeding cycle of stonechats corresponds to the rainy season as rain insures an abundance of food. environmental
Crossbills, a species of finch, maintain a gonadotropic hormone level that allows them to breed when the food supply is adequate. There is some dependence on the photoperiod based on measures of the size of _____ and the time of annual molting. testes
Social interactions influence breeding. Male crossbills who reside with females with _____ implants maintain _____ levels. estrogen, testosterone
Male house mice kill pups they find within three weeks of copulating with a female because they are those of a _____. rival
After 3 weeks the male becomes paternal because the female has given birth. The period of paternal interest lasts seven weeks and the infanticidal behavior reoccurs since the pups have _____ the nest. left
Experiments showed that the suppression of parental behavior was related to the hormone _____. progesterone
Male Japanese quail become visually fascinated with females they have copulated with. Testosterone is converted to 17B-estadiol which triggers changes in the _____ area of the brain. preoptic
Reproductive activity can be influenced by hormonally mediated adjustments. The female fruit fly will refuse to copulate once she receives a hormone called _____ in the male’s semen. SP
Male sexual activity is dependent on a hormone called testosterone produced in the_____. Proof involves castration followed by hormone _____ therapy. testes, replacement
Testosterone is similar in chemical _____ across all species. composition
Levels of testosterone may not be critical for breeding. Evidence for this comes from the _____ _____ sparrow. white crowned
Besides breeding, testosterone is related to _____. aggression
Testosterone can be costly. It weakens the _____ system, leads to the neglect of _____ because of the focus on mating, and a higher expenditure of energy with _____ effects. immune, parenting stress
A dissociated pattern of reproduction is one independent of _____. hormones
In the red-sided garter snake, testosterone is relevant to male _____ production in the fall. sperm
Enzyme activity in various regions of the brain convert the testosterone to estradiol which causes the snakes to seek _____ in the spring. The chief function of testosterone becomes neural _____ for a behavior. females, preparation
Created by: blitz0825