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Intro to Learning

Ch 1 and 2

What is any activity of an organism that be observed or somehow measured? Behavior
What is a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from some type of experience? Learning
What are the two fundamental process of learning? Classical conditioning, Operant Conditioning
What is the process by which certain inborn behaviors come to be produced in new situations? Classical Conditioning (Respondent)
Sneezing in response to dust is an example of which learning process? Classical Conditioning
What involves the strenthening or weakening of a behavior as a result of its consequences? Operant Conditioning
What is the process by which a rat learns to press a lever to receive food? Operant Conditioning
The act of observing someone else's behavior facilitates the development of similar behavior in oneself, is known as? Observational Learning
Non-learned inherited behavior patterns which either facilitate or inhibit certain types of learning is called? Fixed Action Patterns
In what type of conditioning does behavior produce some type of consequence that strengthens or weakens its occurrence? Operant
Feeling anxious as you enter a dentist's office is an example of a behavior that as most likely been learned through what kind of conditioning? Classical
Speaking with a loud voice in a noisy environment so that others will be able to hear you is an example of a behavior that has most likely been learned through what type of conditioning? Operant
Who suggested that ideas come to be connected or associated with each other via the four laws of association? Aristotle
What are the four laws of association? Similarity, Contrast, Contiguity, and Frequency
Cars and trucks are examples of what law of association? Similarity
Short and tall are examples of what law of association? Contrast
Thunder and lightening are examples of what law of association? Contiguity
Friend and Perfume are examples of what law of association? Frequency
Greek nativist philosopher who emphasized the role of heredity? Plato
Greek empiricist who emphasized the role of learning? Aristotle
Animals that have fur, four legs, a tail, and can bark are quickly perceived as belonging to the same species. This is an example of the law of? Similarity
The fact that the words, "full" and "empty" are easily associated with each other is an example of the law of? Contrast
The more often one practices a particular move in wrestling, the more likely one is to perform that move in a real match. This is an example of the law of? Frequency
After once encountering a snake in her garage, Lisa is now quite nervous each time she is in the garage. This is an example of Aristotle's law of ___? This is also an example of ___ conditioning. Contiguity, Classical
French philosopher, "I think, therefore I am." Rene Descartes
Who proposed the notion of mind-body dualism which stated, some human behaviors are reflexes that are automatically elecited by external stimulation, while other behaviors are freely chosen and controlled by the mind? Rene Descartes
Who believed that only humans possess such a self-directing mind, while the behavior of nonhuman animals is entirely reflexive? Rene Descartes
Who maintained that almost all knowledge is a function of experience? British Empiricists
Who proposed that a newborn's mind is a blank slate (tabula rasa) up which environmental experiences are written? John Locke
Who believed the conscious mind is composed of a finite set of basic elements (specific colors, sounds, smells, etc.) that are compibed through principles of association into complex sensations and thought patterns? British Empiricists
Descartes' dualistic model proposed that human behavior has two aspects: ___ that functions like a machine, and ___ goverened by free will. involuntary, voluntary
John Locke was a? British Empricist
What is the experimental study of human consciousness called? Structuralism
Who proposed using the scientific method to investigate? Wilhelm Wundt
Who was Wilhelm Wundt's student who strongly promoted Structuralism? Edward Titchener
What assumes that it is possible to determine the structure of the mind by identifying the basic elements that compose it? Structuralism
Structuralist used the method of ___, in which the subject in an experiment attempts to accurately describe his or her conscious thoughts, emotions, and sensory experiences. Introspection
The method of introspection led the to the groundwork for the more objective approach to psychology, known as? Behaviorism
Who is regarded as the founder of American psychology and helped establish the approach of functionalism? William James
What assumes that the mind evolved to help us adapt to the world around us and that the focus of psychology should be the study of those adaptive processes? Functionalism
What proposition was partially derived from Darwin's theory of evolution? Functionalism
Who believed that psychologists should not study the structure of the mind, but study the adaptive significance of the mind? Functionalists
Functionalists were not opposed to studying what type of behavior? Animal
John B Watson was a ___ psychologist? Functionalist
What is the concept that individuals or species that are capable of adapting to environmental pressures are more likely to reproduce and pass along their adaptive characteristics than those that cannot adapt? Natural Selection
What are the 3 main components of natural selection? trains vary within and between species, many traits are inheritable, organsisms must compete for limitted resources
The real driving force behind evolution is not survival of the fittest, but the _____ advantage that accrues to those individuals possessing traits that are best suited to the environment. Reproductive
A trait that evolves as a result of natural selection is referred to as an? Evolutionary Adaptation
Who lamented the lack of progress achieved by experimental psychologists up to that time, particularly the lack of findings that had any practical significance? John B Watson
What is the study of observable behavior? Behaviorism
Who wanted to make psychology a purely objective science, disregarding internal thoughts and feelings? John B Watson
What is the natural science approach to psychology that focuses on the study of environmental influences on observable behavior? Behaviorism
Behavioral psychology adheres to the law of ___, which proposes that simpler explanations for a phenomenon are generally preferable to more complex explanations. Parsimony
___ ___ holds that it is preferable to interpret animal behavior in terms of lower, more primitive processes such as reflex or habit, than higher, more mentalistic processes, such as reasoning. Morgans Canon
___ ___ asserts that, for methodological reasons, psychologists should study only those behaviors that can be directly observed. Methodological Behaviorism
Watson's theory of learning, ______ is believed to involve the establisment of a connection between a specific stimulus and a specific response. S-R Theory
Watson proposed that humans inherit few basic reflexes, along with three basic emotions? love, rage, and fear
Who claimed that Watson's rejection of unobservable events was scientifically unsound. It might be useful for psychologists to infer the existence of internal events that might mediate between the environment and behavior. Clark Hull
Mediating events are formally called _____ ___, meaning that they intervene between cause and effect. Intervening Variables
A brand of behaviorism that utilizes intervening variables, in the form of hypothesized physiological processes, to help explain behavior. Neobehaviorism
Hull's _____ of learning is often categorized as a molecular theory because it viewed behavior as consisting of a long chain of specific responses connected to specific stimuli. S-R Theory
Who believed that it would be more useful to analyze behavior on a molar (broader) level? Edward Tolman
Tolman's ___ ___ utilizes intervening variables, usually in the form of hypothesized cognitive processes, to help explain behavior. Cognitive Behaviorism
Tolman's most famous intervening variable is the ___ ___ which is a mental representation of one's spatial surroundings. Cognitive Map
What type of learning occurs despite the absence of any observable indication of learning and only becomes apparent under a different set of conditions? Latent
Who developed social learning theory? Albert Bandura
Bandura was very much interested in imitation, which he refferred to as ___ ___. Observational Learning
Who does not dismiss the value of introspectively observed subjective experience in explaining behavior? Albert Bandura
A cognitive-behavioral approach that strongly emphasizes the importance of observational learning and cognitive variables in explaining human behavior? Social Learning Theory
Environmental events, observable behavior, and "person variables" (thoughts and feelings) are seen as having a reciprocal influence on each other. Reciprocal Determinism
Bandura's social learning theory emphasizes the importance of observational learning and ___ variables. Cognitive
The concept of reciprocal determinism proposes that three variables: __, __, and __, all interact with each other. Environment, Behavior, Person
Who's version form of behavior was known as radical behaviorism? Burrhus Frederick Skinner
Emphasizes the influence of the environment an observable (overt) behavior, rejects the use of internal events to explain behavior, and views thoughts and feelings as behaviors that themselves need to be explained. Radical Behaviorism
Skinner acknowledges internal events, but does not include them for explaining ___. Behavior
Deliberate manipulation of environmental events to alter their impact on our behavior. CounterControl
According to Skinner, the ____ ultimately determines both external behavior and internal events. Environment
Skinner believed ____ behaviors, those that can be classically conditioned are atuomatically elecited by the stimuli that precede them. Reflexive
Skinner believed ___ behaviors that are controlled by their consequences have a more flexible, less predictable quality to them. Operant
Skinner established a technology of behavior in which basic principles of behavior are applied to solving real-world issues. Helping people with clinical disorders, improving educational practices, etc. Applied Behavior Analysis
Created by: Bla820