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Bcom MBM Year 2 S2

Business Management

What is organizational behaviour? Organisational behaviour is the study of the structure and management of organisations, their environments and the actions and interactions of their individual members and groups.
What is a shorthand way of describing organizational behaviour? Organisational behaviour is shorthand for the activities and interactions of people in organisations.
What is an organization? An organisation is a social arrangement for achieving controlled performance in pursuit of collective goals.
What is an organizational dilemma? organisational dilemma - how to design organisations that are effective in achieving overall objectives, while also meeting the needs of those who work in them
What is the fundamental attribution error? The tendency to emphasize explanations of the behaviour of others based on their personality or disposition and to overlook the influence of wider contextual influences.
On which approach are natural sciences based on? Natural sciences are based on an approach known as positivism and variance theory.
Explain "Positivism" under the approach natural sciences are based on. Positivism is a perspective which assumes that the world can be understood in terms of causal relationships between observable and measurable variables and that these relationships can be studied objectively using controlled experiments.
Explain "Variance Theory" under the approach natural sciences are based on. Variance theory is an approach to explaining organisational behaviour based on universal relationships between independent and dependent variables which can be defined and measured precisely
On which approach are social sciences based on? Social sciences are based on constructivism and process theory
Explain "Constructivism" under the approach social sciences are based on. Constructivism is a perspective which argues that our social and organisational worlds have no ultimate objective truth or reality, but are instead determined by our shared experiences, meanings and interpretations.
Explain "Process Theory" under the approach social sciences are based on. Process theory an approach to explaining organisational behaviour based on narratives which show how many factors, combining and interacting over time in a particular context are likely to produce the outcomes of interest.
What is Evidence-Based Management? Systematically using the best available research evidence to inform decisions about how to manage people and organisations.
Name the 3 (elements) of culture. Surface manifestations. Values. Basic assumptions.
Explain surface manifestation. Surface manifestations of organisational culture(observable culture) – culture’s most accessible forms, which are visible and audible behaviour patterns and objects.
Explain organizational values. The accumulated beliefs held about how work should be done and situations dealt with, that guide employee behaviour. Values are said to provide a common direction for all employees and to guide their behaviour.
Name 2 sources of values. Values distinguish organizations. Some authors see them as representing organisational solutions to problems experienced in the past. Another source of values are the views of the original founder as modified by the company’s current senior management.
Explain basic assumptions. The invisible, unspoken, ‘taken-for-granted’ understandings of individuals in an org concerning human behaviour, the nature of reality and the organisation’s relationship to its environment. Its deepest level of culture and are difficult to comprehend.
Explain organizational socialization. It is the process through which an employee’s pattern of behaviour, values, attitudes and motives is influenced to conform to that of the organisation.
Name 4 types of organizational culture. Power culture. Role culture. Person culture. Task culture.
Explain Power culture under the 4 types of organizational culture. These are organisations that have a single, dominant individual who exerts their will; controlling by recruiting those of a similar viewpoint and operating with the minimum of rules.
Explain Role culture under the 4 types of organizational culture. Organisations that emphasise the importance of rules, procedures, roles expectations and job descriptions.
Explain Person culture under the 4 types of organizational culture. Organisations that are focused on individuals. Culture is represented symbolically by a cluster, the organisation exist for the benefit of their members and control is exercised only by mutual consent.
Explain Task culture under the 4 types of organizational culture. Organisations that are job or project oriented. The task is specified at the top, but then the emphasis shifts to finding resources and then getting the job done through using individuals enthusiasm and commitment, working as a team.
Name 2 types of learning. Procedural learning. Declarative learning.
Explain procedural learning under the 2 types of learning. or ‘knowing how’ concerns your ability to carry out skilled actions, such as riding a horse or painting a picture.
Explain declarative learning under the 2 types of learning. or ‘knowing that’ concerns your store of factual knowledge, such as an understanding of the history of our use of a horse.
Name the 2 influential approaches to learning. Behaviourist psychology. Cognitive psychology.
Explain Behaviourist psychology. Behaviourist psychology – a perspective which argues that what we learn are chains of muscle movements and that mental processes are not observable and are not valid issues for study.
Explain Cognitive psychology. Cognitive psychology – a perspective which argues that what we learn are mental structures and that mental processes can be studied by inference although they cannot be observed directly.
Define positive reinforcement. the attempt to encourage desirable behaviours by introducing positive consequences when the desired behaviour occurs.
Define negative reinforcement. The attempt to encourage desirable behaviours by withdrawing negative consequences when the desired behaviour occurs.
Name the 2 ways the development of associations between stimuli and responses occurs. Pavlovian conditioning and Skinnerian conditioning.
Define shaping. The selective reinforcement of chosen behaviours in a manner that progressively establishes a desired behaviour pattern.
Define intermittent reinforcement. A procedure in which a reward is provided only occasionally following correct responses and not for every correct response.
Define schedule of reinforcement. The pattern and frequency of rewards contingent on the display of desirable behaviour.
Define intristic feedback. Information which comes from within, from the muscles, joints, skin and other mechanisms such as that which controls balance.
Define extristic feedback. Information which comes from our environment such as the visual and aural information needed to drive a car.
Define concurrent feedback. Information which arrives during our behaviour and which can be used to control behaviour as it unfolds.
Define behaviour modification. a technique for encouraging desired behaviours and discouraging unwanted behaviours using operant conditioning.
Name the 5 steps for organizational behaviour modification. 1) Identify crit, obser + meas behaviors. 2) Measure frequency of behaviors. 3) Establish triggers 4 behaviors + conseq. 4) Develop strategy 2 strengthen desired behaviors. 5) Evaluate effectiveness of approach in changing behavior + improving perform.
Define socialization. The process through which individual behaviours values, attitudes and motives are influenced to conform with those seen as desirable in a given social or organisational setting.
Define behavioural modelling. Learning how to act by observing and copying the behaviour of others.
Define provisional selves. From observing others, the experiments that we make with the ways in which we act and interact in new organisational roles.
Organisations encourage different standards concerning: (6) 1) What counts as good work performance. 2) Familiarity in social interactions at work. 3) The amount of deference to show to superiors. 4) Dress and appearance. 5) Social activities after work. 6)Attitudes to work, colleagues, managers, unions, customers
Name the 4 problems with behaviour modification. 1) Appropriate reinforcers may not always be available. 2) We do not all respond in the same way to the same reinforcers. 3) Once started, a behaviour modification programme has to be sustained. 4) There may not be enough extrinsic motivators.
What is behavioural self-management? Behavioural self-management is a technique for changing one’s own behaviour by systematically manipulating cues, cognitive processes and contingent consequences.
Name the 4 steps of BSM. 1)Identify undesirable beh want 2 change/develop/improve. 2)Man situational cues that trigger desired beh. 3)Cognitive support for new beh threw sym coding/mental reh/self-talk thats positive and supportive of desired change. 4)Develop self-reinforcement.
Define learning organization. Learning organisation is an organisational form that enables individual learning to create valued outcomes, such as innovation, efficiency, environmental alignment and competitive advantage.
Define explicit knowledge. Knowledge and understanding which is codified, clearly articulated and available to anyone.
Define knowledge management. The conversion of individual tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge so that it can be shared with others in the organisation.
.Define personality. The psychological qualities that influence an individual’s characteristic behaviour patterns, in a stable and distinctive manner.
Define psychometrics. The systematic testing, measurement and assessment of intelligence, aptitudes and personality.
Define chronotype. A cluster of personality traits that affect whether someone is more active and performs better in the morning or in the evening.
Define "type" under types and traits. A descriptive label for a distinct pattern of personality characteristics such as introvert, extravert or neurotic.
Define "traits" under types and traits. A relatively stable quality or attribute of an individual’s personality, influencing behaviour in a particular direction.
Define "traits" under types and traits A relatively stable quality or attribute of an individual’s personality, influencing behaviour in a particular direction
Name the big 5 trait clusters. Openness. Conscientiousness. Extraversion. Agreeableness. Neuroticism.
Name 4 factors that cause stress. difficulty in coping with change, lack of confidence, poor time management, poor stress management skills.
Name 6 typical stressors in an organisational context. Inadequate physical working environment, inappropriate job design, poor management style, poor relationships, uncertain future, divided loyalties.
Can stress be positive? Stress – or pressure – can also be arousing and exciting, and can enhance our sense of satisfaction and accomplishment and improve our performance.
Define eustress. The term eustress describes the positive aspect of stress.
Define distress. Distress means unpleasant, debilitating and unhealthy side of stress.
Explain the ideographic approach. An approach to the study of personality emphasizing the uniqueness of the individual, rejecting the assumption that we can all be measured on the same dimensions.
Define self-concept. The set of perceptions that we have about ourselves.
What is a selection method? A selection (or a promotion) decision is a prediction about the ability of a candidate to perform well in the particular job.
What is psychometrics and what does it promise to improve?# Psychometrics, the systematic testing, measurement and assessment of intelligence, aptitudes and personality, promise to improve the objectivity of selection and promotion decision.
Name and explain the 2 improtant criteria when selecting a psychometric assessment for any purpose. 1) Reliability – the degree to which an assessment delivers consistent results when repeated. 2) Predictive validity – the extent to which assessment scores accurately predict behaviours such as job performance.
What are assessment centres? Assessment centres use a wide range of methods where groups of around 6 – 10 candidates are brought together for 1- 3 days.
Name 6 methods used in assessment centres? They are presented, individually and a group with a variety of exercises, tests of ability, personality assessments, interviews, work samples, team problem-solving and written tasks.
Define extreme jobs under extreme jobs and boreout.# is a job that involves a working week of 60 hours or more, with high earnings, combined with additional performance pressures.
Name a few characteristics of extreme jobs. Characteristics of extreme jobs include; physical presence in the office of at least 10 hours a day, tight deadlines and fast working pace, unpredictable workflow, inordinate scope of responsibility etc.
Explain boreout. Boreout refers to boredom, demotivation and lack of energy and enthusiasm caused by uninteresting, unchallenging and monotonous work. Boreout leads to high levels of sick leave and reduces company loyalty.
Define drive. An innate, biological determinant of behaviour, activated by deprivation.
Define motive. A socially acquired need activated by a desire for fulfilment.
Define motivation. The cognitive decision-making process through which goal-directed behaviour is initiated, energised, directed and maintained.
Name the 4 innate and hardwired drives of the emotional needs theory. 1) The drive to acquire (obtain scarce goods, develop social status). 2) The drive to bond (form connections with other individuals and groups). 3) The drive to comprehend (satisfy our curiosity). 4) The drive to defend (protect against threats).
Name the 4 process theories. These include; the equity theory, expectancy theory, goal setting theory and inner work life theory.
Explain the equity theory. A process theory which argues that perception of unfairness leads to tension, which motivates the individual to resolve that unfairness.
Explain the expectancy theory. Argues that individual motivation depends on the valence of outcomes, the expectancy that effort will lead to good performance and the instrumentality of performance in producing valued outcomes.
Explain the goal-setting theory. A process theory of motivation which argues that work motivation is influenced by goal difficulty, goal specificity and knowledge of results.
Explain the inner work life theory. A process theory of motivation which argues that our behaviour and performance at work are influenced by the interplay of our perceptions, emotions and motives.
Define valence. The perceived value or preference that an individual has for a particular outcome, can be positive, negative or neutral.
Define expectancy. The perceived probability that effort will result in good performance; measured on a scale from 0 (no chance) to 1 (certainty).
The social process of motivating others: Explain Taylor’s scientific management approach to designing jobs.## 1) Break down complex tasks into simple steps. 2) Decide on the best way to perform the work. 3) Train employees to carry out the work. 4) Reward employees.
Whats wrong with Taylor's scientific management approach to designing jobs?# Taylor’s approach to job design appears logical and efficient, but it creates jobs that do not stimulate motivation or improve performance.
Define job enrichment. A technique for broadening the experience of work to enhance employee need satisfaction and to improve motivation and performance.
Name the 2 factors of the 2 factor theory. The “two factor theory” consists of the motivator factors and hygiene factors.
Define vertical loading factors. Methods for enriching work and improving motivation, by removing controls and increasing accountability and by providing feedback, new tasks, natural work units, special assignments and additional authority.
Define intristic rewards. Valued outcomes or benefits which come from the individual such as feelings of satisfaction, competence, self-esteem and accomplishment.
Define extrinsic rewards. Valued outcomes or benefits provided by others, such as promotion, pay increases, a bigger office desk, praise and recognition.
Name and describe the 5 core dimensions through which jobs can be analysed that the model suggests.# Skill variety: Ext job uses diff skills/abilities. Task identity: Ext job involves ‘whole’/meaningful work. Task significance: Ext job affects others work. Autonomy: Ext job provides independence/discretion. Feedback: Ext perform inf related to indiv.
Define empowerment. Organisational arrangement that give employees more autonomy, discretion, and decision-making responsibility.
Define engagement. The extent to which people enjoy and believe in what they do and feel valued for doing it.
Define high performance work system(HPWS). A form of organisation that operates at levels of excellence far beyond those of comparable systems.
Created by: AnDyEaTsYoUrToE
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