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Pharmacology exam1

Pharm exam 1

Penicillinsweaken cell wall/safest
Penicillin G narrow spectrum/ pencilinase sensitive/treats pneumonia, meningitis, gas gangrene/allergy
Allergy type immediate/ accelerated/late
Anaphylaxis laryngeal edema/bronchoconstriction/hypotension
Allergy treatment epinephrine/respiratory support/ prevention-skin test
Cephalosporins beta lactam/bactericidal/high therapeutic index/ given parenterally/allergy/bleeding/thrombophelbitis
First generation Cefazolin/cephalexin/gram positive/prophylaxis
Second generation Cefotetan/Cefaclor/Cefoxitin-abdominal inf./ H.flu & URI
Third generation Ceftriaxone/ meningitis, gonorrhea, severe infection, UTI
Fourth generation Cefepime/use for CSF
3rd& 4th generation increased activity against gram negative bacteria/increase resistance to beta lactamses/increased ability to reach CSF
Carbapenems beta-lactam with low toxicity
Imipenem staph, gram + & -, bone, joint, skin, soft tissue/ MVA/ gi-n/v, diarrhea, rash, pruritus/ give IV only
Vancomycin inhibits cell wall/active against gram +/severe infections MRSA/ototoxicity, red person syndrome, thrombophlebitis, allergy
Monobactams Aztreonam/inhibits cell wall/narrow spectrum/ active against gram - aerobic bacteria/ H.Flu, E.coli, severe systemic infections/ must be given IM or IV/ pain & thrombophlebitis @ injection site
Fosfomycin single dose therapy/ UTI caused by e.coli/ diarrhea & headache
Tetracyclines broad spectrum/ inhibits protein synthesis/emerging resistance due to extensive use/ bacteriostatic/ Rocky mountain fever, typhus fever, chlamydia, brucellosis, cholera, lyme diease
Tetracycline Adverse Effects absorption decreased when given with calcium, milk, iron/ give 2hrs before or 2hrs after/ GI cramps, n/v, diarrhea, photosensitive, effect on bone, teeth (yellow/brown), superinfection, hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity
Doxycycline long acting agent/ given once daily/ can be taken with food/periodontal disease, lyme disease, anthrax, gum disease
Macrolides very big molecules/ broad spectrum/ gram + & -
Erythromycin use if allergic to penicillin, pneumonia, whooping cough, acute diphtheria/ can be taken with food/ GI-n/v, diarrhea/ cholestatic hepatitis- n/v, jaundice/sudden cardiac death/ stay away from pts who has cardiac problems
Other Macrolides Clarithromycin- resp. tract inf. & h. pylori/ Azithromycin- resp. tract inf. & otitis media/ ear & sinus inf.
Clindamycin inhibits protein synthesis/indicated only for certain anaerobic inf. located outside CNS/group A & gas gangrene/ can induce AAPMC-super inf. of bowel/ renal toxicity- kidneys & liver/ hepatic toxicity
Linezolid first member of new class of antibiotics-oxazolidinones/ active against VRE & MRSA/ diarrhea, nausea, headache
Telthromycin first rep of the ketolides class/ effective against strains of strep/ GI-n/v, diarrhea, gray syndrome, visual disturbances
Chloramphenicol broad spectrum/ inhibits protein synthesis/ only for life-threating inf./ reversible bone marrow depression, fatal aplastic anemia, gray syndrome, gi effects, peripheral neurpathy
Tigecycline MRSA & complicated intraabdominal inf./ n/v
Pleuromutlin Retapamulin-topical antibiotic for impetigo/ Mupirocin- bactroban specific for clearing nostrils of MRSA
Aminoglycosides narrow spectrum/ bactericidal but needs oxygen/ microbial resistance/ aerobic gram -, serious inf./ risk serious injury to ear & kidney/ ototoxicity-tinnitus, nephrotoxicity, neuromuscular blockade, hypersensitivity, drug interaction w/pcn- cannot mix
Gentmicin serious inf. caused by gram-/ pseudomonas, E.coli, kiebsiella, serrtia/ nephrotoxicity/ ototoxicity
Sulfonamides broad spectrum/ bacteriostatic/ suppress bacterial growth by folic acid/ UTI/ hypersensitivity- rash, photo, stevens-johnson syndrome, crystalluria- drink water/ intensifies with warfarin
Created by: 1041879472510690



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