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PS TNOM Chapter 1

Inside the Atom

TermDefinition
Aristotle 384-322 B.C. Greek Philosopher and scientist who did not believe in the existence of atoms.
Democritus 460-370 B.C. Greek scientist who proposed the existence of atoms.
John Dalton 1766-1844 A.D. English physicist who proposed four ideas about atoms.
William Crooks 1832-1919 A.D. British chemist who developed the cathode ray tube. Proposed that cathode rays were really rays of particles.
JJ Thomson 1856-1940 A.D. English physicist who discovered that charged particles flow in a cathode ray tube. Proposed the "Plum Pudding" model of the atom.
Earnest Rutherford 1871-1937 A.D. New Zealander who is credited for discovering the nucleus.
Earnest Marsden 1889-1970 A.D. Student scientist who performed the gold foil experiment.
Proton Positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom.
Neutron Uncharged particle in the nucleus of an atom.
Electron Negatively charged particle associated with, but outside of, the nucleus.
Electron Cloud A region surrounding the nucleus in which electrons exist.
Element Matter that is made of only one type of atom.
Isotopes Atoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons.
Mass Number The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Niels Bohr 1885-1962 A.D. Discovered that electrons exist in energy levels surrounding the nucleus.
Atomic Number Describes the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic Mass The average mass of an atom of an element.
Compound A substance whose smallest unit is made of atoms of more than one element.
Mixture Two or more substances combined, which do not create a new substance.
Homogeneous "The same throughout"
Heterogeneous "Different throughout"
Erwin Schroedinger 1887-1961 A.D. Austrian who developed mathematical models to describe the location of electrons around an atom. Electron "clouds" came into vogue!
James Chadwick 1891-1974 A.D. British scientist who proved the existence of neutrons.
Malleability Resistance to shattering. Ability to receive impact without shattering.
Ductility Ability to be drawn into wires.
Allotropes Different forms of the same element. Often, they may be of a different crystalline shape (ie diamond and graphite) or perhaps bonded in different ways (red vs white phosphorous). Allotropes often have different chemical and physical properties.
Hans Geiger 1882-1945 A.D. Student scientist who performed the gold foil experiment.
Leucippus ~500 B.C. Earliest recorded proposal of the existence of atoms.
Created by: MrGross