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Chapter 3 and 4

solstice either two times of the year ,when the suns rays shine directly overhead at noon at the furthest point N or S and that marks the beginning of summer and winter.
equinox each of the two days in a year on which day and night are equal in lengh.
weather the conditions of the atmospere at a particular location and time.
climate the typical weather conditions at a particular location as observed over time.
precipitation falling water droplets in the form of rain.
rain shadow the land on the leeward side of hills or mountains that gets little rain from the desecending dry air.
hurricane a storm that forms over warm tropical ocean waters.
typhoon a tropical storm like a hurricane that occurs in the western pacific.
tornado a powerful funnel shaped column of spiraling air .
blizzard a heavy snow storm with winds more than 35 miles per hour and reduced visibility of less than one quarter mile.
drought a long period without rain or with very minimal rainfall.
convection the transfer of heat in the atmosphere by motion of the air.
el nino a weather pattern created by the warming of the waters off the west coast of south america
greenhouse effect the layer of gases released by the burning of coal and petroleum that traps solar energy.
tundra the flat treeless land forming a ring around the artic ocean
permafrost permanatly frozen ground.
ecosystem an interdependent community ofplants and animals.
biom a regional ecosystem.
deciduous a named characteristic of broadleaf trees.
rain forest a forest region located in the tropical zone.
coniferous another word for needleleaf tree.
savanna the term fot the flat green mostly tree less plants in a tropical grassland reigon.
steppe the term used for the temperate grassland reigon in the northern hemishere.
culture the total of knowlege ,attitudes and behaviours shared by and passed on by members of a group.
society a group that shares a geographic region a common language and a sence of identety
ethnic group a group of people who share there language customs and common heritage.
innvation taking existing elements of society and creating something new and creative.
diffustion the spread of ideas,ineventions or patterns of behaviors to different society.
cultural hearth the place of origin of a major culture .
accultureation the culture changed when individuals in a society adoptes an innoveton.
dialect a version of a language that reflects changes in speech patterns
religion the beleife in a supernatural power that are regarded a from the creators.
Birthrate the number of live births per total population,often expressed per hour.
fertillity rate the average number of children a woman of childbering years would have in her lifetime.
mortality rate the number of deaths per thousands.
infant mortaity the number of deaths among infants under age one as measured per thousand live birth.
rate of natural increase also called population growth rate.
population pyramid a graphic device that shows gender and age distrabution of a population.
push pull factors a factor they causes people to leave their homelands .
population density the average number of people who live in a measurable are.
carrying capacity the number of organisums a peice of land can support without negative effects.
state a politicial term describing an independent unit that occupies a specific terretory.
nation a group of people with common culture living in a territory.
nation state the name of a territory when a nation and a state occupy the same territory.
democracy a type of government in which citizens hold polititial power either directly.
monarchy a type of government in which a ruling family headed by a king hold polititial power
dictatorship a type of government in which an individualholds complete political power.
socialism the government controls most of a country means.
communism a movment based on the teaching of confucius.
landlocked having no outlet to the sea.
urban geography the study of how people use space in cities.
city an area that is the center of buisness and culture and has a large population.
suburb a politial unit or community touching the borders of the central city.
metopolitian area a functional are including a city and surrounding.
urbanization the dramatic risee in the number of cities and the changes in life style that result.
central business district the core of a city.
economy the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people.
economic system the way people produce and exchange goods.
command economy a type of econmic system in which production of goods .
market economy a type of econimic system in which production of goods and services.
natural resorces a material on or in the earth.
infastructure the basic support system needed to keep an economy going.
per capita income the average amount of money earned by each person in a polititial unit.
GNP the total value of all goods and services produced by a country in a period of time.
free trade zones an econimoc ststem.
outsourcing reflecting the goods of and services produced in on country by a company based in another counrty.
gdp the value of only goods and sevices produces with in a country in a period of time.
Created by: RachelTaylor



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