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Stack #1976858

Chapter 3 and 4

Solstice Ether of 2 times of year when the sun rays shine directly overhead at noon at the furthest point N, or S, and the mark the beginning of summer and winter; in the Northern Hemi, the summer solstice is the longest day and the winter solstice is the shortest
Equinox Each of the two days in a year on which day and night are equal in length; marks the beginning of spring and autumn.
Weathering physical and chemical process that change the characteristics of rock on or near the earths surface, occurring slowly over many years.
Climate the tropical weather conditions at a particular location as observed over time.
Precipitation falling water droplets in the form of rain, hail, sleet, or snow.
Rain Shawdow the land on the leeward side hills or mountains that get little rain from the descending dry air.
Hurricanes a storm that forms over warm water, tropical ocean waters.
Typhoon a tropical storm, like a hurricane, that occurs in the western pacific.
Tornado a powerful funnel- shaped column of spiraling air.
Blizzard Heavy snowstorm winds or more that 35 miles per hour and reduced visibility of less than one- equator.
Drought A long period with rain or wil little rainfall.
Convevtion the transfer of heat in the atmosphere by upward motion of the air
El Nino a weather pattern created by the warming of the waters off the west coast of South America, which pushes of the water and heavy rains toward the Americas and producers drought conditions in Australia and Asia
Green house effect The layer of gasses released by the burning of coal and petroleum that traps solar energy, causing global temperature increasing
Tundra the flat treeless lands forming a ring around the Artic Ocean; the climate region of the Arctic Ocean
Permafrost the subsoil is constantly frozen.
Ecosystem an interdependent community of plants and animals
Biome A regional ecosystem
Deciduous a named characteristic of broad leaf trees, such as maple, oak, birch, and cottonwood.
Rain Forest a forest region located in the tropical zone with a heavy concentration of different species of broadleaf trees.
Coniferous another word for needless trees.
Savanna the term for the flat, grassy mostly treeless plains in the the tropical grassland regioun.
Steppe the term used for the temperate grassland region in the Northern Hemisphere
Culture the total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members.
society a group that shares a geographic region, a common language, and sense of identity and culture
ethnic group a group of people who share language, customs, and a common heritage.
innovation taking existing elements of society and creating something new to meet a need.
diffusion the spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior to different societies.
cultural hearth the heartland or place of origin of a major culture; site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to the cultures.
acculturation the culture change that occurs when individuals in society accept or adopt an innovation.
dialect a version of a language that refers change in speech patters due to class, region, or culture changes.
religious the belief in supernatural power or powers that are regarded as the creators and maintain of the universe, as well as the system of belief itself.
birthrate the number of live births per total population, often expressed per thousand population
fertility rate the number of children a women of childbearing years would have in her lifetime if she had a children in the current rate of her country.
mortality rate the number of deaths per thousand
infant mortality rate the number of deaths under age one as measured per thousands live births
rate if natural increase also called population growth rate- the rate at which population is growing found by subtracting the mortality rate from the birth rate.
population pyramid a graphic device that shows gender and age distribution of a population.
push-pull factors pull- a factor that draws or attracts people to another location push- a factor that causes people to leave their home lands and migrate to another region.
population density the average number of people who live in a measurable area, reached by dividing, the number of inhabitable in an area by the amount of land they occupy
carrying capacity the number of organisms a piece of land can support without negative effects.
state a political term describing an independent unit that occupies a specific thery and has full control
nation a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity.
nation-state the name of a territory when a nation and a state occupy
democracy a type of which citizens ho;d political power ether directly or through elected representatives.
monarchy a type of government in which a ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with citizens bodies.
dictatorship a type of gov. in which an individual or a group holds complete political power.
communism a system in which the government holds nearly all political power and the means of production
landlocked having no outlet to sea.
urban geography the study of how people space in cities
city the area that is the center of business and culture has a large population
suburb a political unit or community touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the city.
metropolitan area the city its shrubs, and exurbs link together economically to form a functional area.
urbanization the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyles that result.
central business district the core of a city is almost always based on commercial activity.
economy the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people.
economic system The way people produce and exchange goods and services.
Command economy a type of of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by central government, which usually owns the means of production. also called a planned economy.
Market Economy a type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by demand from consumers. also called a demand economy or capitalism,
Natural resources are materials on in the earth such as trees,fish,coal- that have economic value.
Infrastructure the average amount of money earned by each person in a plitical unit.
Per Capita Income the average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit.
GNP Gross National Product the total value of all goods and services produced by a country over a year or some other specified period of time
outsourcing gnp may reflect the value of goods or services produced in one country by a company based in another country.
GDP Gross Domestic product-- which is the total value of all goods and services product within a country in a given period of time.
Free-trade zones these connections have led to free trade- exchange of goods among nations without trade barriers, such as tariffs.
Religious belief in a supernatural powers, or in an ultimate reality, as expression of belief in practice.
Created by: _lyds1010_



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