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Chapter 3

Leadership Style The combination of traits, skills, and behaviors leaders use as they interact with followers.
Autocratic Leadership Style Makes the decisions, tells employees what to do, and closely supervises workers.
Democratic Leadership Style Encourages participation in decisions, works with employees to determine what to do, and does not closely supervise employees.
University of Michigan Leadership Model Consists of 2 leadership styles: job centered and employee centered.
Job-Centered Leadership Style Refers to the extent the leader takes charge to get the job done.
Employee-Centered Leadership Style Refers to the extent the leader focuses on meeting the human needs of employees while developing relationships.
Ohio State University Leadership Model Identifies 4 leadership styles: low structure and high concentration, low structure and low concentration, high structure and low concentration, and high structure and high concentration.
Initiating structure behavior Focuses on getting the job done.
Consideration Behavior Focuses on meeting people's needs and developing relationships.
Leadership Grid Identifies 5 leadership styles
Impoverished Leader Low concern for both production and people.
Authority-Compliance Leader Has high concern for production and a low concern for people.
Country-club leader Has high concern for people and a low concern for production.
Middle of the road leader Has a balanced, medium concern for both production and people.
Team Leader Has a high concern for both production and people.
Motivation Anything that affects behavior in pursuing a certain outcome.
Motivation Process People go from need to motivate to behavior to consequence to satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
Content Motivation Theories Focus on explaining and predicting behavior based on people's needs.
Hierarchy of Needs Proposes that people are motivated through 5 levels of needs- physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.
Two Factor Theory Proposes that people are motivated by motivators rather than maintenance factors.
Maintenance (extrinsic) factors Motivation that comes from outside the person and job itself.
Motivators (intrinsic) factors Motivation comes from within the person or job itself.
Acquired Needs Theory Proposes that people are motivated by their need for achievement, power and affiliation.
Process Motivation Theories Focuses on understanding how people choose behavior to fulfill their needs.
Equity Theory Proposes that people are motivated when their perceived inputs equal outputs.
Expectancy Theory Proposes that people are motivated when they believe they can accomplish the task, they will get the reward, and the rewards for doing the task are worth the effort. Motivation= expectancy x instrumentality x valence.
Expectancy The person's perception of his or her ability to accomplish an objective, self efficacy.
Instrumentality Refers to belief that the performance will result in getting the reward.
Valence Refers to the value a person places on the outcome or reward.
Goal-Setting Theory Proposes that specific, difficult goals motivate people.
Writing objectives model Are (1) to + (2) action verb + (3) singular, specific, measurable result to be achieved + (4) target date.
Reinforcement Theory Proposes that through the consequences for poor behavior, people will be motivated to behave in predetermined ways.
Positive Reinforcement A method of encouraging behavior is to offer attractive consequences (rewards) for desirable performance.
Negative (avoidance) reinforcement Taking away something negative for doing a desired behavior.
Punishment Provide an undesirable consequence for an undesirable behavior.
Extinction Quit doing the consequence so the behavior stops.
Continuous reinforcement Each and every desired behavior is reinforced.
Intermittent Reinforcement The reward is given based on the passage of time or output.
Giving Praise Model 4 steps for giving praise to an employee.
Created by: Shibishob