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Egan ch 13 acid-base

TermDefinition
Acid-Base Balance Refers to physiologic mechanisms that keep [H+] body fluids in a range compatible with life
Normal range for pH in body fluids (Corresponding to [H+] of 45-35 nmol/L) 7.3 - 7.4
Ratio for pH to bicarb is ___ 20:1
Hydrogen ions (H+) formed in body come from either____ or ____ acids Volitile Fixed (non volitile)
Normal aerobic metabolism generates aproximately ____ of ____ producing equal amount of ___ 13000 mmol/L CO2 H+
Blood buffers are classified as ___ or ___ buffer systems Bicarbonate Non bicarbonate
Bicarbonate buffer system is a ___ buffer ___ Open System
Nonbicrabonate is called a ___ buffer ____ Closed System
______ system compensates for fixed ____ production preventing significant increase in ___ Respiratory Acid H+
Fixed acid production is ____ averaging only about __ - __ meq/day Small 50 70
Abreviation for hydrochloric acid HCl
Weak acids and ___ ionize to a __ extent Bases Small
Nearly 100% HCl molecules dissocate to form __ & __ H+ Cl-
___ ___ of an acid is a measure of extent to the acid dissociate (___)
Equilibrium constant Ionize
H-H equation [HCO3-] pH=6.1+log ----------- Paco2×.03 Henderson Hasselbach equation
The Henderson Hasselbach (H-H) equation is specifically used for calculating the ___ of the ____ buffer system pH Bicarbonate
Calculation of pH is importance because it equals pH of ___ ___ because all buffer systems in the blood are in ____ with the same pH Blood Plasma Equalibrium
Blood gas analyzers measure __ & ___ but compute [___] pH PCO2 HCO3-
Normal arterial pH is 7.4
Normal PaCO2 is 40mmHg
Bicarbonate buffer system is an open system meaning one of its components is continually removed which is (ventilation) CO2
Formula for bicarbonate buffersystem is Exhaled gas <- CO2+H2O <- H2CO3 <- H2CO3-+H+
kidneys physically remove H+ from the body by three ways (functions) Excretion Secretion Reabsorbtion
(Kidney function) excretion Elimination of substance from body through urine
(Kidney function) Secretion Renal tubule cells actively transport substances into fluid of tubule lumen or filtrate
(Kidney function) Reabsorbtion Active or passive transport of filtrate sustances back into tubile cell into blood of nearby capullarries
Kidneys excrete less then ___ meq of fixed acid per day 100
Do kidneys or lungs change blood PCO2 faster Lungs
Lungs can change PCO2 in blood with in Seconds
Kidneys can change PCO2 through renal process at a slow rate requiring __ to ___ Hrs Days
_____ is the component of renal nephron responsible for filtering the blood Glomerulus
Excreted filtrate Urine
When the filtrate pH decreases to __ H+ secretion stops 4.5
Normally kidneys maintain arterial ____ concentration of approximately ___ to ___ mEq/L Bicarbonate 22 26
Normal pH range is 7.35 - 7.45
Normal PaCO2 is 35 - 45 mmHg
Normal [HCO3-] is 22 - 26mEq/L
Blood pH greater then 7.45 Alkalemia
Blood pH less then 7.35 Acidemia
PaCO2 less then 35mmHg Hyperventilation
PaCO2 greater then 45mmHg
Hypoventilation
80% of CO2 comes from____ Tissues
____ comes from the aveoli not being ventilated enough Respiratory Acidosis
Co2 goes up to 45 while PH falls below 7.5 Respiratory acidosis
If rate is above 20 they are hypoxic
____ (avelor hyperventilation)-lowers arterial Paco2, decreases carbonic acid thus increasing PH Respiratory Alkalosis
____-low Hco3- with low PH causes increased fixed acid accumulation (lactic acidosis in anaerobic metabolism) metabolic acidosis
excessive loss of Hco-3 gives____ dirrhea
if PH is above 7.2 the body tries to reach
Homeostasis
what is a stable mixture of two or more substances in a single phase, that cannot be separated by centurfuge? solution
What is a substance that dissolves? solute
what is a medium in which a substance dissoled? solvent
what are colloids also know as? dispersions gels
a substance consisting of large molecules that attract and hold water colloid
How are molecules in colloids distributed? uniformly
Do colloids settle? not usually
What is an example of a colloid? the protoplasm inside of cells
What is a suspension? they are composed of large particles that float in a liquid.
can a suspension be physically separated by centerfugation? yes
Give an example of a suspension? RBC in plasma
what does NaCl stand for? sodium chloride
what is the normal body cellular tonicity of sodium chloride? 0.9%
Created by: Jr3