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Psychology Questions

Psychology questions for test #1

QuestionAnswer
What is the difference between materialism and dualism, what philosophers are associated with each and which is preferred by science? Materialism is one substance while dualism is spirit and matter as separate substances. Aristotle founded Materialism, and Plato founded Dualism. Materialism is favored by science.
What are the basic features/ideas of the Three Historical Approaches to Psychology? Psychodynamic approach:unconscious motives,importanceof past,basedoncasestudiesBehavioralapproach:Environmentalinfluenceoverbehavior,importanceofinfluences,based on experiments.Humanistic approach:Drivenbyinnerneeds,bigimpactoncurrentappliedaspectsofthefi
What are the three components of The Scientific Attitude? Curiosity, skepticism, and humility.
What do we mean by a Theory and a Hypothesis? How are they related? A theory is an explanation that predicts behaviors and events, while a hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory. A theory is a proven hypothesis.
What are the 4 reasons for studying Psychology? Helps understand human motivations, human diversity, helps answer the question Nature versus Nurture, and helps answer the question Mind versus Body.
Wundt was the first psychologist to study___? The mind.
The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model proposed three interacting memory systems. How much memory does each hold and for how long? Iconic (0.5 Seconds long), Echoic (3-4 Seconds long), and Hepatic (<1 second long)
There are three types of tasks that can be used to test memory. Define and give an example of each. Recognition:person must identify an item amongst other choices.(multiple choice tests recognition)Recall:personmust retrieve info using effort.(fillinthe blank test requires recall)Relearning:person shows how much time/effort is saved learning stuff again
What was the significance of Freud? Developed first theory of personality and form of psychotherapy (Psychology as an applied endeavor)
What was the significance of Skinner and Watson? Behaviorists who argued for the study of “overt” observable behavior not “mental events” (thoughts and perceptions. From 1920-1950 this was the focus of American Psychology
What was the significance of Maslow and Rogers? In the 1950s developed the Humanist approach in response to Freud and the behaviorists. Return American psychology’s focus towards mental events (cognitions).
What are the five types of Research psychologists? Biological, Developmental (most), Cognitive, Personality,
What was the significance of James? Wrote first text book and studied mystical experiences. Was rediscovered in the 1960s with advent of hallucinogenic drugs
Types of Applied Psychologists? Clinical (most), Counseling, Educational, Industrial/Organizational, and Health.
Created by: bhemlepp