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Terms for Test #1

Structuralism Early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind.
Functionalism Early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Behaviorism The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes
Humanistic Psychology Historically significant perspective that emphasized human growth potential.
Cognitive Neuroscience The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language.)
Psychology the science of behavior and mental processes
Nature nurture Issue The question of whether our human traits are present at birth, or do they develop through experience?
Natural Selection nature selects traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
Evolutionary Psychology the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
Behavior Genetics the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
Culture the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Positive Psychology the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive
Levels of Analysis the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
Biopsychosocial Approach An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychologyical, and social cultural levels of analysis
Basic Research Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Applied Research Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Counseling Psychology a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
Clinical Psychology a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
Psychiatry a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
Community Psychology a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social environments and social institutions affect individuals and groups
Testing Effect enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test enhanced learning
SQ3R a study method incorporating five steps: survey, question, read, retrieve, review
Relearning A measure of learning that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again
Encoding The processing of information into the memory system
Storage The process of retaining information over time
Retrieval The process of getting information out of memory storage
Parallel Processing The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural made of information. Processing for many functions
Short Term Memory Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the 7 digits of a phone number while calling, before the information is stored and forgotten
Sensory Memory The immediate very buried recording of sensory information in the memory system
Long Term Memory The relatively permanent and timeless storehouse of the memory system; includes knowledge, skills and experiences
Working Memory A newer understanding of short term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial information, and of information retrieved from long term memory
Explicit Memory Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”. Also called declarative memory
Effortful Processing Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Automatic Processing Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well learned information, such as word meanings
Implicit Memory Retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection. Also known as non declaration memory
Iconic Memory A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Memory Consolidation The neural storage of a long term memory
Flashbulb Memory A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Long Term Potentation An increase in a cells firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
Hippocampus A neural center located in the limbic system that processes explicit memories
Echoic Memory A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
Chunking Organizing items into familiar manageable units often occurs automatically
Mnemonics Memory aids, especially those techniques that use imagery and organizational devices
Spacing Effect The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
Shallow Processing Encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words
Deep Processing Encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention
Priming The activation often unconsciously of particular associations in memory
Encoding Specificity Principle The idea that cues and context specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping recall it.
Mood Congruent memory; the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current. Good or bad mood
Serial Position Effect Our tendency to recall best the first and last items in a list
Anterograde Amnesia An inability to form new memories
Retograde Amnesia An inability to retrieve information from one’s past
Proactive Interference The forward acting disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Retroactive Interference The backward acting disruptive effect of a new learning on the recall of old information
Repression In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings and memories
Reconsolidation A process which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again
Misinformation When misleading information has corrupted one’s memory of an event
Source Amnesia Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. This is at the heart of many false memories
Déjà vu The eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before”. Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
Scientific Method Construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observation.
Cerebellum A neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories
Created by: bhemlepp