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SPC Diag Procedures

SPC Diagnostic Procedures Units 1 & 2 Review

QuestionAnswer
What is MIP? Maximum Inspiratory Pressure, normal: -50 to -100, how hard a pt can inhale air - assess muscle strength/atrophy
What is MEP? Maximum Expiratory Pressure, normal: 80 to 100, how hard a pt blows air out - assess muscle strength/atrophy
What is Peak Flow? Tells how open/closed pt's airways are, good for COPD & asthma pts
What is MVV? Max. Voluntary Ventilation: Tells how hard & fast a pt can breath for 1 min or 10secs x 6 = 1min. Normal: 35xFEV1 or >40% predicted. Measure of cardiopulmonary reserve.
Wright's Spirometer Turbine, breaks easy, expensive, can't do an FVC but can do an SVC w/ bacteria filter
Body Plethysmography (body box) Measures air 'trapped' in obstructed airways to determine FRC.
Spirometer calibrating devices Super syringe, rotometer, rotary pump
Open Circuit Washout Measures % of N2 in the alveolar gas after pt breathes 100% O2 for 7 mins, normal N2: 2.5% after 7 mins, test ends when pts exhaled N2 < 1%. Measures how much O2 used to replenish RV.
Closed Circuit Test Pt breathes in He mixed w/ air = 10-15%He concentration, use an absorber to remove exhaled CO2 so pt doesn't rebreathe it, small amount of O2 used so pt doesn't become hypoxic. Measures amount of He going in & out to determine RV
FEV1/FVC < 80% = Obstructed
FVC < 80% predicted = Resricted
Obstructive Lung Diseases Cystic Fibrosis, Bronchitis(chronic), Asthma, Bronchiectasis, Emphysema (airway issues)
Restrictive Lung Diseases Lung cancer, Pneumoconiosis, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Sarcoidosis, Silicosis (alveoli / chest wall issues)
Spirometry indications Detect the presence/absence of lung disease, quantify the extent of known disease on lung function, measure effects of occupational/environmental exposures, +/- effects of therapy, assess risk for surgical procedures, evaluate disability/impairment
What is FEF200-1200? Measures flow early in the expiratory maneuver, requ pt effort, measures flow in larger airways
What is FEF25%-75%? Measures exp flow rates at a later pt in the maneuver & incl flow from medium & small airways, <80% pt on way to developing airway disease, Normal: 4-5L/sec
Indirect Spirometry methods Gas Dilution(open or closed circuit) and Body Plethysmography
What is Indirect Spirometry? Used to determine lung volumes not measurable by direct spirometry - RV, FRC, TLC
Volume How much
Flow How fast
Pressure How hard
FVC instructions Deep breath in, fast & full breath out
What is FVC1? Total volume of air exhaled in one second
What is FVC3? Total volume of air exhaled in three seconds
What is SVC? Slow Vital Capacity
FVC & SVC s/b Similar, if not there's an obstruction
Short & Fat Loops indicate Obstruction
Tall & Skinny Loops indicate Restriction
Scoop in the Loop The further down the loop = the further down the lung
What is Back Extrapolation? Moving the procedure start time
What is FENO? Fraction of Expired Nitric Oxide. High FENO = increased airway inflammation
FVC increases by 12% or more = Improvement
How to detect pneumonia? Xray
Don't do spirometry when? Acute situations
Reduced flow = Obstructive
Reduced volumes = Restrictive
Closed circuit restrictions Ruptured eardrums
TLC% 100
VC% 80
RV% 20
IC% 60
FRC% 40
IRV% 50
Vt% 10
ERV% 20
Why do we perform spirometry on pts? To find out if they are obstructed, restricted, both, or neither by measuring their volumes and flows
What is PVM? Primary volume measuring spirometers: measure the volume of air moving out of the pt's lungs then / it by the time requ to move this volume to determine flow
What is PFM? Primary flow measuring spirometers: measure the amount of flow moving out of the pt's lungs then x it by the amount of time to move this flow to determine volume
Where can spirometry be performed? Pt room, bedside, physician's office, PFT lab, outpatient clinic, hospital
Who sets the calibration standards for spirometers? American Thoracic Society
What is a VC? The amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration
How to tell if a pt has a pseudorestriction If pt appears restricted but has an RV greater than 100% predicted
Created by: vgflgirl