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Psychology

Chapter 1

TermDefinition
What is psychology? The scientific behavior and mental processes.
Behavior: Outward or overt actions and reactions.
Mental Processes: Internal, covert activity of our minds.
Psychology Is A Science Prevent possible biasis from leading to faulty observations. Precise and careful measurement.
Psychologies Four Goals: What Is Happening? Why is it happening? The theory is general explanation of a set of observations or facts.
Prediction Will it happen again?
Control How cam it be changed?
Structuralism Focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind.
Structuralism: Wihelm Wundt's psychology laboratory Germany in 1879. Developed the technique of objective introspection: the process of objectively examining and measuring ones thoughts and mental activities.
Structuralism: Edward Titchener Wundt's student; brought structuralism to America.
Structuralism: Margaret Washburn Titchener's student; first woman to earn a Ph.D in psychology. Structuralism died out in the early 1900's.
Functionalism How the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play.
Functionalism: Proposed by William James Influenced by the modern fields of: educational psychology, evolutionary psychology, industrial/organizational psychology
Gestalt Psychology Gestalt: "good figure" psychology. Started with Wertheimer, who studied sensation and perception. Gestalt ideas are now part of the study of cognitive psychology, a field focusing not only on perception but also on learning, memory, thought processes.
Gestalt Psychology Continued And problem solving.
Gestalt Perception The eye tends to "fill in" the blanks rather than a set series of dots or a broken line.
Psychoanalysis The theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud Freud's patients suffered from nervous disorders with no apparent psychical cause.
Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud Continued 2 Freud proposed the existence of an unconscious (unaware) mind into which we push or repress all of our threatening urges and desires.
Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud Continued 3 His patients suffered from nervous disorders with no apparent psychical cause. He belived that these repressed urges, in trying to surface, created nervous disorders and stressed the importance of early childhood experiences.
Behaviorism The science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only. Must be directly seen and measured.
Behaviorism: Proposed by John B. Watson Based on the work of Ivan Pavlov, who demonstrated that a reflex could be conditioned (learned). Also believed that phobias were learned. Case of "Little Albert": taught to fear a white rat.
Behaviorism: Mary Cover Jones An early pioneer in behavior therapy.
Modern Perspectives: Psychodymanic Perspective Modern version of psychoanalysis. More focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a persons behavior than sexual motivations.
Modern Perspectives: Behavioral Perspective B.F. Skinner studied operant conditioning of voluntary behavior. Behaviorism became a major force in the 20th century. Skinner introduced the concept of reinforcement to behaviorism.
Modern Perspectives: Humanistic Perspective Owes far more to the early roots of psychology in the field of philosophy. Humanists held the view that people have free will: the freedom to choose their own destiny. Early founders are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.
Modern Perspectives: Humanistic Perspectives 2 Emphasized the human potential, the ability of each person to become the best he or she could be. Self actualization: achieving ones full potential or actual self.
Modern Perspectives: Cognitive Perspective Focused on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning.
Modern Perspectives: Sociocultural Perspective Focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture.
Modern Perspectives: Biopsychological Perspective Attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system.
Modern Perspectives: Evolutionary Perspective Focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share. Looks at the way the mind works and why it works as it does. Behavior is seen as having an adaptive or survival value.
Types of Psychological Professionals: Psychiatrist A medical doctor who has specilized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.
Types of Psychological Professionals: Psychoanalyst Either a psychiatrist or psychologist who has special training in theories of Sigmund Freud and his method of psychoanalysis.
Created by: Blissful_Olive