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Tera's Pharm

Endocrine system for pharmacology, glands and chapter review

Where is the pituitary gland located? At the base of the brain
What is the nickname for the pituitary gland? The "master gland"
Purpose of the pituitary gland? To regulate the function of all the other glands
What hormones do the pituitary gland secrete? somatotropin, ACTH, TSH
somatotropin, a hormone released by the pituitary gland, is also called? Human growth hormone
What does somatotropin do? Regulates growth
Where are the adrenal glands located? Adjacent to the kidneys
What hormones are released by the adrenal glands? Corticosteroids, LH
What do the hormones of the kidney's do? Help regulate blood pressure, helps somewhat with metabolism and immune system
What do corticosteroids do? Act on the immune system to suppress the body's response to infection or trauma.
What two categories are corticosteroids primarily used for? 1) replacement therapy 2) anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant agents
What are some reasons to use corticosteroids? -Allergic reactions -Life threatening shock -Cancer patients using Chemo -Cerebral edema -Organ transplant patients -Immunosuppressant -Acute flare ups of UC, rheumatic, skin conditions
Why is prolonged use of corticosteroids discouraged? It can cause suppression of the pituitary gland with adrenocortical atrophy, in which the body no longer produces its own hormone.
What are dose packs used for? They are used to facilitate dose tapering.
Side effects of corticosteroids? Delayed wound healing, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle pain or weakness, osteoporosis, Cushing's syndrome, gastric issues, CNS effects, petechiae, easy bruising, skin thinning and tearing.
Where is the thyroid gland located? Front part of the neck
What is the thyroid gland responsible for? Metabolism
Two bioactive thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) triiodothyronine (T3)
Major product of the thyroid gland thyroxine (T4)
Most common thyroid problem in the U.S. hypothyroidism
hypothyroidism is? Diminished or absent thyroid function -TSH is elevated -T3 and T4 are decreased
hyperthyroidism is? Elevated thyroid function
Disease associated with hyperthyroidism? Grave's disease
Conditions associated with hypothyroidism? cretinism, myxedema
Symptoms of hypothyroidism fatigue, dry skin, thinning hair, weight gain, constipation, sensitivity to cold, irregular menses
Antithyroid agents are used to treat? hyperthyroidism
Side effects of antithyroid agents? Rash, urticaria, pruritus, abnormal sense of taste, blood dyscrasias
Major disease of the pancreas? Diabetes mellitus
Numbers to remember for insulin- Rapid 10 1 3
Numbers to remember for insulin- Short 30 1 6
Numbers to remember for insulin- Intermediate 1 6 18
Numbers to remember for insulin- Long 1 0 Up to 24
What is a thyroid storm? An emergency, it is a thyroid crisis for people who have hyperthyroidism.
What are the symptoms of a thyroid storm? High fever, CHF, shock, confusion, irritability
When does a thyroid storm occur? After thyroid is removed, surgery, injury, thyroid is not functioning normally
Important things to tell your patients who are on meds such as levothyroxine, Thyroid agents? Take them on an empty stomach, don't miss doses.
T or F: You can split levothyroxine and Tapazole meds False- you should never split them
Type 1 diabetes mellitus Insulin dependent
Type 2 diabetes mellitus Insulin resistance and deficiency
Most common form of diabetes mellitus? Type 2
What is the result of long-term, poorly controlled diabetes? Vascular injury
Where is insulin produced in the body? The islets of Langerhans in the pancreas
All injected insulin products currently marketed are one of two types: biosynthetic human analog
Most of the insulin used today is? U-100
Each line on the insulin 100 unit (1ml) syringe represents ____ units. Two
If a patient has hyperglycemia, administer ___? Insulin
If a patient has hypoglycemia, administer ____? Glucogon, juice, sugar tablets
Regular insulin is best given ___ to ___ min before a meal. 30-60
Insulin is administered with what route and location? SQ, in arms or legs (Limbs absorb fastest)
All insulin injections are at a ___ degree angle no matter that they are subcutaneous. 90
T or F: verification of insulin dosage with another caregiver is very important to prevent one of the most dangerous medication errors. True
Patient education topics for new diabetic patients includes...? -Diet -injection instructions -sliding scale instructions -storage -how long insulin lasts once it is opened
How long does insulin last once it is opened? about 30 days (28-42)
Tests performed for diabetes mellitus hemoglobin A1C fasting glucose
Why are two insulins usually prescribed to patients? One is for maintenance and one is for emergency situations
Symptoms of hyperglycemia -excessive thirst-anorexia-unexplained weight loss for people under 40-polyuria-fruity breath-lethargy-weakness-flu symptoms-vision problems-ketoacidosis
Symptoms of hypoglycemia -perspiration-pallor-hunger-nausea-vomiting-irritablity-confusion-tremor-weakness-tingling in fingers-vision problems-tachycardia-shallow breathing-headache-hypothermia
T or F:Hypoglycemic reactions in older diabetics may mimic a CVA? True
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes excessive weight gain(those over 40)-excessive thirst-excessive urination-excessive weakness-poor circulation-slow healing-vision problems
Sulfonylureas are? oral hypoglycemic drugs that work by increasing insulin production from the pancreas and improving peripheral insulin activity
Side effects of sulfonylureas? GI distress-weakness-fatigue-lethargy-vertigo-headache-hypoglycemia
How do alpha-glucosidase inhibitors work? By delaying digestion of complex carbohydrates and subsequent absorption of glucose. *Take with 1st bite of meals
Side effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors? High rate of GI effects
How do biguanides work? Decreasing hepatic glucose production and enhancing insulin uptake in muscle tissue
Side effects of biguanides? GI effects-hypoglycemia
Incretin therapies are? Agents that mimic the actions of incretin hormones that normally naturally occur within the GI tract in response to food.
Side effects of incretin therapies? GI effects, injection site reactions, hypoglycemia
Meglitinides are? stimulate the beta cells of the pancreas to produce insulin.
Side effects of meglitinides? GI effects, hypoglycemia, upper respiratory infection
What do thiazolidinediones do? Lower blood glucose by decreasing insulin resistance and improving sensitivity to insulin in muscle, liver, and adipose tissue.
Side effects of thiazolidinediones? Weight gain-fluid retention-edema-uri-respiratory symptoms-myalgia-hypoglycemia
What does the parathyroid gland do? regulates calcium levels
Where is the thymus gland located and what does it effect? Above the heart, the immune system
Where is the pineal gland located, and what does it do? Brain, regulates melatonin (sleep hormone)
What does the hypothymus gland do? Secretes growth hormone
What is the purpose of insulin in the body? It makes our body's cells absorb glucose from the blood
Why should an insulin pen be primed? Makes sure that it is ready to use and gets rid of any air inside
Created by: JenSaw77



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