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Chapter Six

Comparative Psychology

Ideal distribution theory argues that animals evaluate the quality of habitats based on the quality of the habitat and the density of other members of their species. Their choice maximizes _____ _____. reproductive success
Red knots, a species of bird, shift between mudflats in Europe based upon the availability of snails. Since decisions to shift are involved, this behavior exemplifies _____ _____ theory. free distribution
A territory can be defined as a defined site with _____. boundaries
African chimpanzees patrol the boundaries of their territory and may _____ intruders. kill
Territorial expansion by chimpanzees adds feeding grounds and more females to _____ with. breed
An experiment with testosterone implants compared to inert implants in Yarrow’s spiny lizards stimulated territorial behavior in males during the non-breeding season. Both energy expenditure & _____ were higher in the group with testosterone implants. mortality
A cost-benefit approach to territorial behavior predicts that the highest quality territories would be held by individuals with superior _____ abilities. combative
Fighting ability and social dominance relate to _____ holding power. resource
A study of dominant males of the American red start warbler that winters in Jamaica found that they occupied the prime wintering sites. They maintained their body weight and were the first to _____ north in the spring. migrate
Being the first to migrate provides access to the most favorable _____ _____. breeding sites
The holder of a territory is likely the one who is _____ to mate. first
Often intruders into a territory give up quickly despite the payoff of reproductive success. A possible explanation is an _____ stable strategy. evolutionary
Stable strategies in competitiveness are likely genetic. Intense competitors are likely injured or killed. Genes of competitors who immediately quit become more _____. common
One poss. evolutionary stable strat. for competition is resident holders always win. In some exp. w/ the speckled wood butterfly, competition winners b/t new territorial holders & former residents related to how _____ the new resident held the territory. long
Competition for territory in the animal kingdom is rarely decided by the application of a rule such as territorial holders always win. Territorial holders are generally larger and _____. stronger
Although generally larger and stronger, other features of the winner may control outcomes. In the case of the African widow bird one cue seems to be the gaudiness of its _____. epaulettes
Other cues could be involved because if the epaulettes are _____ over, the prior winner still wins. painted
Another case in which physical contact does not decide winners and losers is the damsel fly. Competition is won by the _____ of an acrobatic flight. duration
Different valuations of a territory by two individuals are known as _____ _____. payoff asymmetry
Differential valuation of a territory would have to be based on familiarity with the features of a territory. Experiments done with various species on _____ support payoff asymmetry. tenure
Territories in most species adjoin one another. Familiarity with one’s neighbors decreases competition and is known as the _____ _____ effect. dear enemy
The dear enemy effect is important in conserving bodily energy. Stephen’s kangaroo rats that were moved with their neighbors or dear enemies had a _____ rate of successful breeding than those moved without neighbors. higher
Many animals leave home, especially males. One possible benefit is to avoid _____. inbreeding
Inbreeding increases the probability of combinations of _____, _____ genes. recessive, negative
A preference to breed with unfamiliar partners may have evolved. In the spotted hyena females _____ males in their clan. avoid
Female offspring often remain near their mother while males don’t because females receive _____ when they breed. assistance
Dispersal may also be due to conflict because males move away from other males whom they cannot _____. subdue
Dispersal can be costly. In a study of quail dispersal, the odds of being picked off by a predator increased with _____ traveled. distance
Migration is an _____ cycle involving movement between a breeding area and a holding area until conditions allow return to the breeding area. annual
Migration is _____ among many species to include insects, fish, birds and mammals widespread
It is possible that migration developed by sedentary species becoming migratory ones through _____ with modification . descent
Evidence that sedentary species evolved into migratory ones comes from the phylogenetic study of songbirds and _____. thrushes
In one species of bird, migration has been replaced by being stationary. This species is a woodland _____. warbler
Migratory behavior would only be maintained if _____ exceeded _____. benefits; costs
One of the physiological changes that support migration is the ability to quickly process stored _____. fat
One proof of energy needs comes from the red knot who feeds off of horseshoe crab eggs. As the horseshoe crab population declined in the Delaware Bay, low _____ birds were not recaptured in subsequent years. weight
European songbirds may travel westward to reach the Straits of Gibraltar before crossing into Africa. This may reduce the risk of _____. dying
Some American species of birds fly south and go across the Gulf of Mexico. Others use a land route. Choice is related to _____ fat reserves. body
Leaving the wintering ground to go north because food is becoming plentiful in the north in the spring cannot explain migration . One reason is that food is still _____ in the wintering area. plentiful
In the case of migration of gazelles, wildebeests, and zebras in the Serengeti National Park, the factor governing migration was the _____ of the water in watering holes. salinity
The actual route taken by the gazelles and other animals was dependent on the availability of grass which is governed by _____. rainfall
Some species of birds can either or not migrate. This suggests that migration is _____ at least in some species. conditional
The same species can have subgroups that occupy totally different breeding and wintering areas. An example is the fox _____. The explanation of the difference is not clear but may be related to divergence based on sub speciation. sparrow
Created by: blitz0825
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