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Chapter Five

Comparative Psychology

QuestionAnswer
Adaptations are _____ traits. genetic
Adaptations either have or are spreading in the _____. population
The selected trait is only _____ better in promoting reproductive success. relatively
Adaptations are not perfect because _____ traits of no current adaptive value can still be present. retained
Genes have multiple effects some of which can be _____. negative
Coevolution or the analogy of an arms race exists between prey and _____. predator
If you examine the behavior of animals in their natural environment, you are using a method to study adaptations called _____ _____. field observation
In his study of the mobbing behavior of gulls, Kruuk placed chicken eggs at various distances from the gulls’ nests and counted how many were eaten by carrion crows. This is an example of an _____. experiment
If you study adaptations in other species that experience similar selection pressures to the species you are investigating to see if similar adaptations have evolved, you are using the _____ method. comparative
Similarity in trait development because of similar selection pressures on different species is known as _____ evolution. convergent
Mobbing behavior is not restricted to colonial birds. The colonial mammal used to exemplify convergent evolution was the California _____ _____. ground squirrel
The evolutionary process that eliminates non-functional traits when selection pressures are no longer present is called _____ evolution. divergent
The example of divergent evolution used in the text involved a cliff nesting gull called the _____. kittiwake
Colonial nesting and assembling for other purposes such as foraging increases conspicuity. The larger the group, however, the less the risk that the individual will be picked off by a predator. This is called the _____ effect. dilution
Monarch butterflies exemplify the dilution effect when they gather on riverbanks for fluids and nutrients. This behavior is called _____ _____. mud puddling
Two benefits of grouping are shared _____ and the possibility of using other animals as a shield. vigilance
The end result of jockeying for a protected position in a herd is what Hamilton called the _____ _____. selfish herd
Game theory was developed by _____. economists
Game theory assumes that two players are employing different strategies to achieve an objective and that there will be a winner and a _____. loser
In evolutionary applications, the winner of the game is the one who passes on more _____ to the next generation. genes
The selfish herd hypothesis says that individuals use other individuals as shields by trying to find a place in the _____ of the herd. center
In bluegill colonies the individuals who are successful in building nests in the center of the colony are _____ individuals. dominant
Dilution or selfish herd approaches will not protect solitary individuals. They use _____. camouflage
The melanic form of the peppered moth was almost extinct in Great Britain until soot darkened _____ tree bark. birch
The whitish form of the peppered moth became _____ relative to the melanic form because soot changed the coloration of the bark. rare
Moths appear to be able to make decisions about where to place themselves in order to _____ use of their coloration. maximize
If use of coloration and precise orientation on bark is adaptive, then moths should be less _____ to birds. visible
Some camouflaged insects make themselves conspicuous when under attack. They are able to make sounds which _____ predators. startle
Monarch butterflies, a very conspicuous species, feed off of milkweed whose sap is _____. poisonous
The recycled poisons, stored in the monarch’s tissue, make them so bad tasting that it is likely they are _____ by a bird even before the bird bites into them. dropped
If a bird eats a monarch, _____ is induced and the experience prevents birds from attempting to eat another monarch. vomiting
Use of coloration to mimic another species such as a spider is used as a defense by the _____ fly. tethrid
The display of its whitish rump when a gazelle leaps into the air as a predator approaches is known as _____. stotting
The fact that stotting occurs when gazelles are alone contradicts the hypothesis that stotting serves as a _____ to the herd. warning
Stotting does not seem to serve the purpose of allowing the gazelle to quickly scan terrain for other predators because it occurs as often when grass is _____ as when it is _____. short; long
Stotting does not likely send a message to other members of imminent danger because the white tail is often oriented _____ from the herd during the behavior. away
The fact that cheetahs attack gazelles, who do not stott, indicates that stotting sends a message about the overall _____ of the gazelle. health
Proving the relationship between stotting and the health and vigor of the gazelle is not provable in a field _____. environment
The health hypothesis or attack-deterrence hypothesis about stotting behavior was proved by examining the behavior of the _____ lizard in a laboratory setting. Anolis
Optimality theory is more _____ than cost-benefit analysis. mathematical
The relationship between behavior and costs and benefits is portrayed in a _____. graph
The resulting graphed curve can be expressed as a mathematical _____ by the use of software. function
In the example of optimality theory provided in the text using quail covey size, two curves were provided. One is for _____ and the other for benefits. costs
In the quail covey curve, the author used _____ as the benefit and _____ traveled for food as the cost. survival; distance
The optimal covey size is determined by noting the value of the least cost and greatest _____. benefit
A study on krill feeding by the blue whale found that the ratio of the energy gained by eating krill was _____ times greater than the estimated energy expended in capturing them. eighty
Experiments with captive zebra finches and red crossbills related caloric intake to successful _____. reproduction
The caloric intake model only works well if other _____ factors are not in play. environmental
Dugongs adjust their feeding habits to either crop sea grass or dig the rhizomes of the sea grass based upon the presence of _____. sharks
Since the introduction of wolves back into Yellowstone Park, elk adjust their feeding habits based upon the presence of predators. Long-term survival outweighs short term _____ gain. caloric
Frequency dependent selection involves an oscillation between genotypes. The rarer form of the gene becomes more common until it _____ or _____ the frequency of the initial common form. equals; exceeds
A reciprocal oscillation between genotype commonality can result in the two alleles remain reasonably _____ in the population. equal
This oscillation is called _____ dependent selection. frequency
Variation in strategies can be conditional if the gene allows flexibility. Searching seaweed and probing other sites for food in turnstone shore birds is dependent on the presence of _____ individuals. dominant
Created by: blitz0825