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Pathology Ch 1

QuestionAnswer
Disease Any abnormal disturbance of the function/structure of the human body
Pathogenesis Occurs after injury, and is the development of disease
Manifestations observable changes
symptom patients subjective perception of disease
sign objective manifestation detected by physician
syndrome group of signs and symptoms that characterizes a specific abnormal disturbance
asymptomatic does not produce symptoms
Etiology study of the cause of disease
nosocomial disease acquired in a hospital
Iatrogenic adverse responses to medical treatment itself
idiopathic no causative factor can be identified
Acute disease with quick onset and last a short period
chronic disease that manifests slowly and lasts a long time
sequelae lasting effects from acute or chronic disease ( neurological damage from stroke)
Diagnosis name of a disease a individual is believed to have
Prognosis predicted course and outcome of the disease
morphology structure of cells or tissue
Epidemiology investigation of disease in large groups
prevalance number of cases found in a given population
incidence number of new cases found in a given period
mortality rate average number of deaths caused by a particular disease in a population
morbidity rate incidence of sickness sufficient to interfere with an individuals normal daily routine
genome entirety of an organisms hereditary information
physical maps used to determine physical location of a gene on a chromosome
genetic maps used to assign the distance between genetic markers
single-nucleotide polymorphisms genetic variations of single DNA bases
haplotype closely linked SNPs on a single chromosome
Atrophy generalized decrease in cell size
hypertrophy generalized increase in cell size
hyperplasia increase in the number of cells in a tissue as a result of excessive proliferation
metaplasia conversion of one cell type to another cell type that is normal for that tissue
dysplasia abnormal changes of mature cells
congenital disease present at birth and resulting from genetic or environmental factors
hereditary diseases caused by developmental disorders transmitted genetically from parents/ancestors
inflammatory disease that results from the body's reaction to a localized injurious agent
autoantibodies when antibodies form against and injure the patients own tissue
autoimmune disorders diseases associated with autoantibodies (rheumatoid arthritis)
infection an inflammatory process caused by a disease-causing organism
virulence ease with which an organism can overcome body defenses
degenerative diseases caused by deterioration of the body
metabolism sum of all physical and chemical processes in the body
traumatic diseases that result from mechanical forces such as twisting or crushing of a body part or from the effects of ionizing radiation
neoplastic disease results in new, abnormal tissue growth
benign neoplasm composed of well-differentiated cells with uncontrolled growth
malignant neoplasm loss of control of both cell proliferation and differentiation and changes functional capabilities
metastatic spread spreading of cancer cells resulting in secondary tumor distant from primary lesion
hematogenous spread spread via blood vessels
lymphatic spread spread via the lymphatic system
invasion cancerous cells spread into surrounding tissue by virtue of proximity of the areas
seeding cancerous cells travel to a distant site or organ system
carcinoma type of cancer derived from epithelial tissue
sarcoma type of cancer that arises from connective tissue
leukemia arises from blood cells
lymphoma arises from lymphatic cells
"T" classification size of tumur
"N" classification lymph node involvement
"M" classification distant metastasis (spreading to other parts of the body)
The prediction of the course and end of a disease and an outlook based on that prediction best defines its: prognosis
A compression fracture of the lumbar spine that results from steroid treatments for pain reduction of arthritis would be an example of what disease? Iatrogenic
A disease such as Tay-Sachs syndrome that is transmitted genetically is termed hereditary
sickness sufficient to interfere with normal daily routine is termed morbidity
Which is considered a symptom of a disease process? A- Bloody stool B- Nausea C- Skin Rash D- Swelling B- Nausea because it is subjective
A disease that manifests slowly and is present for a long period of time is said to be: chronic
which disease classification is usually associated with the normal aging process? degenerative
if 4000 cases of a given disease are found in a give population, this is the: prevalence of the disease
the relative ease with which an organism can overcome normal bodily defenses refers to: virulence
a neoplastic growth is evaluated to determine its degree of histologic differentiation. This is termed: grading
generalized increase in cell size refers to: hypertrophy
what refers to abnormal changes in mature cells? dysplasia
Created by: rachelreilly