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chapter 1 and 2

geography the study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on the earth.
absolute location the exact place on earth where a geographic feature is found.
relative location describes a place in relation to other places around it.
hemisphere each half ofthe globe.
equaor the imaginary line that encircles the globe,dividing the earth into northern and southern halves.
prime meridian the imaginary line at zero meridian used to measure longitude east west, and divinding the earths east passes through greenwich,england.
latitude a set of imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator, ad that are used in locating places north or south.
longitude a set of imaginary lines that go around the earth over the poles,dividing it east and west.
globe a three dimentional representation of the earth.
map a two dimentional graphic representation of selected parts of the earths surfaces.
cartographer a map maker.
map projection a way of mapping the earths surface that reduce distortion caused by converting three dimentons into two.
topographic map a general refrance map, a reprisentation of of natural man made features.
landsat a series of satellites that orbit more than 100 ils above the earth.
geographic information system technology that uses digital map infomation to creat a databank.
Continent landmass above water on th earth
Solar System cosists of the sun and eight known planets.
core the earths center made up of iron,nickle the inner core is solie.
mantle a rock layer about 18000 miles think between the earths crust and mantle.
magma the molten rock material formeed when solid rock in the earths mantle melts.
crust the thin rock layer making up the earths surface.
atmoshpere the layer of gasses immediatley surrounding the earth.
lithosphere the solid rock portion of the earths surface
hydrosphere the waters compraising the earths surface.
biosphere all the parts of the earth were the plants and animals live,including the atmosphere, lithospere, andhydrospere
continental drift the hypothisis that all continents were once joined into a supercontenint that split apert of the ocean.
hydrologic cycle the continuous circulaton of water amoung the atmosphere, the ocean,and the earth.
drainage basin an area drained by major river and its tributaries.
ground water the water held under the earths surface,often in and around pores of rocks.
water table the level at witch rock is saturated.
landfroms a naturally formed feature on the earth.
continental shelf the hypothesis that all continents were once joined into a supercontinent that split apart over millions of years.
relief the difference in elevation of a landform from the lowest point to the highest point.
topography the combined characteristics of landforms and their distribution in a region.
techtonic plate an enormous moving shelf that forms the earths crust.
fault a fracture in the earths crust.
earthquake a sometimes voilent movement of the earths,producted when ectonic plates grind or split past each other at a fault.
seismograph a device that measures the size of the waves created by an earthquake.
epicentere the point on the earths surface that enciricles the globe,dividing the earth into northern and southern halfes.
richter scale a way to measure information collected by seismographs to determine the relative strength of an earthquake.
tsunami a giant ocean wave ,caused by an underwaterearthquake or volcanic eruption.
volcano a natural event, formed when magma ,gasses,andwater from the lower part of the crust or mantle collect in underground chambers and eventually erupt and pour out of cracks in the earths surface.
lava magma that has reached the earths surface.
ring of fire the chain of volcanoes that lines the pacific rim.
weathering physical and chemical prosses that change the characteristics of rock on or near the earths surface.
sediment small peices of rock produced by weathering process.
mechanical weathering natural process that breaks rock into smaller pieces.
chemical weathering a process that changes rock into a new substance trough interactions among elements in the air or water and the minerals in the rock.
erision the result of weathering on matter,created by the action of wind,water,ice,or gravity.
delta a fan like landorm made of deposited sediment,left by a river that slows as it enters the ocean.
loess wind blown slit and clay sediment that produces very fertile soil.
glacier a large long lasting mass of ice that moves because of gravity.
glaciation the changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers.
moraine a ridge or hill of rock carried and finally deposited by a glacier.
humus organic material in soil.
Created by: RachelTaylor



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