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Pharm chp 2

absorption what happens to a drug from the time it enters the body until it enters the circulating fluid; intravenous administration causes the drug to directly enter the circulating blood, bypassing the many complications of absorption from other routes
active transport the movement of substances across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient; this process requires the use of energy
chemotherapeutic agents synthetic chemicals used to interfere with the functioning of foreign cell populations; this term is frequently used to refer to the drug therapy of neoplasms, but it also refers to drug therapy affecting any foreign cell
critical concentration the concentration a drug must reach in the tissues that respond to the particular drug to cause the desired therapeutic effect
distribution movement of a drug to body tissues; the places where a drug may be distributed depend on the drug’s solubility, perfusion of the area, cardiac output, and binding of the drug to plasma proteins
enzyme induction process by which the presence of a chemical that is biotransformed by a particular enzyme system in the liver causes increased activity of that enzyme system
excretion removal of a drug from the body; primarily occurs in the kidneys, but can also occur through the skin, lungs, bile, or feces
first-pass effect a phenomenon in which drugs given orally are carried directly to the liver after absorption, where they may be largely inactivated by liver enzymes before they can enter the general circulation;
glomerular filtration the passage of water and water-soluble components from the plasma into the renal tubule
half-life the time it takes for the amount of drug in the body to decrease to one half of the peak level it previously achieved
hepatic microsomal system liver enzymes tightly packed together in the hepatic intracellular structure, responsible for the biotransformation of chemicals, including drugs
loading dose use of a higher dose than what is usually used for treatment to allow the drug to reach the critical concentration sooner
passive diffusion movement of substances across a semipermeable membrane with the concentration gradient; this process does not require energy
pharmacodynamics the study of the interactions between the chemical components of living systems and the foreign chemicals, including drugs, that enter living organisms; the way a drug affects a body
pharmacogenomics the study of genetically determined variations in the response to drugs
pharmacokinetics the way the body deals with a drug, including absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion
placebo effect documented effect of the mind on drug therapy; if a person perceives that a drug will be effective, the drug is much more likely to actually be effective
receptor sites specific areas on cell membranes that react with certain chemicals to cause an effect within the cell
selective toxicity property of a chemotherapeutic agent that affects only systems found in foreign cells without affecting healthy human cells (e.g., specific antibiotics can affect certain proteins or enzyme systems used by bacteria but not by human cells)
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the way that drugs affect the body
Most drugs work by replacing natural chemicals, by stimulating normal cell activity, or by depressing normal cell activity
Chemotherapeutic agents work by interfering with normal cell functioning, causing cell death. The most desirable chemotherapeutic agents are those with selective toxicity to foreign cells and foreign cell activities
Drugs frequently act at specific receptor sites on cell membranes to stimulate enzyme systems within the cell and to alter the cell’s activities
Pharmacokinetics the study of the way the body deals with drugs—includes absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion of drugs
The goal of established dosing schedules is to achieve a critical concentration of the drug in the body. This critical concentration is the amount of the drug necessary to achieve the drug’s therapeutic effects
Arriving at a critical concentration involves a dynamic equilibrium among the processes of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism or biotransformation, and excretion
Absorption involves moving a drug into the body for circulation. Oral drugs are absorbed from the small intestine, undergo many changes, and are affected by many things in the process. IV drugs are injected directly into the circulation and do not need additional absorption
Drugs are distributed to various tissues throughout the body depending on their solubility and ionization. Most drugs are bound to plasma proteins for transport to reactive tissues
Drugs are metabolized or biotransformed into less toxic chemicals by various enzyme systems in the body. The liver is the primary site of drug metabolism or biotransformation. The liver uses the cytochrome P450 enzyme system to alter the drug and start its biotransformation
The first-pass effect is the breakdown of oral drugs in the liver immediately after absorption. Drugs given by other routes often reach reactive tissues before passing through the liver for biotransformation
Drug excretion is removal of the drug from the body. This occurs mainly through the kidneys
The half-life of a drug is the period of time it takes for an amount of drug in the body to decrease to one half of the peak level it previously achieved. The half-life is affected by all aspects of pharmacokinetics.
The actual effects of a drug are determined by its pharmacokinetics, its pharmacodynamics, and many human factors that can change the drug’s effectiveness
To provide the safest and most effective drug therapy, the nurse must consider all of the possible factors that influence drug concentration and effectiveness
Created by: 1480781538



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