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Geography Basics

Globe An exact and accurate model of the earth.
Map A flat projection of the earth
Hemisphere One-half of the earth divided either north-south or east-west
Equator Zero degrees latitude line running around the earth at its middle and dividing the earth into northern and southern hemispheres
Prime Meridian Zero degrees longitude meridian running from the north pole to the south pole and dividing the earth into eastern and western hemispheres. (on the opposite side of the earth at this meridian becomes the International Date Line at 180 degrees)
Tropic of cancer Lies 23 1/2 degrees above the equator
Tropic of capricorn Lies 23 1/2 degrees below the equator
Equinox Occurs in September and March when the sun strikes the earth directly on the equator making the night and day equal length (September 23=Autumnal Equinox; March 21=Vernal Equinox) Caused by the movement of the earth as it travels around the sun.
Solstice Occurs on June 21 and December 21 resulting in the longest day of the year (Summer Solstice) and the shortest day of the year (Winter Solstice). Caused by the movement of the earth as it travels around the sun.
Mercator Projection A navigaional chart
Created by: JoshDaBoss1