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Understanding Pharm

Chapter 1 Terms

TermDefinition
Absorption Movement of a drug from outside the body into the bloodstream. (p.12)
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) or Adverse Effect A drug effect that is more severe than expected and has the potential to damage tissue or cause serious health problems. Usually requires intervention. (p.9)
Agonist An extrinsic drug that activates the receptor site of a cell and mimics the action of naturally occurring drugs. (p.7)
Allergic Response Type of adverse effect in which the presence of the drug stimulates the release of histamine, and other body chemicals that cause an inflammatory response.Ranges from mild to severe. (p.10)
Antagonist An extrinsic drug that blocks the receptor site of a cell, preventing the naturally occurring substance from binding to the receptor. (p.7)
Bioavailability The percentage of a drug dose that actually reaches the blood. (p.12)
Black Box Warning A notice that a drug may produce serious or even life threatening effects in some people in addition to i'ts beneficial effects. (p.10)
Brand Name A manufacturer-owned name of a generic drug; also called a "Trade Name" or "Proprietary Name." (i.e. Tylenol is a brand name.) (p.4)
Cytotoxic Drug action that is intended to kill a cell or organism. (i.e. Antibiotics kill bacteria.) (p.8)
Distribution The extant that a drug absorbed into the blood stream spreads into the three body water compartments. (p.14)
Drug/Medication Any small molecule that changes any body function by working at the chemical and cellular levels. (p.2)
Drug Therapy The planned use of a drug to prevent or improve health problems. (p.3)
Duration of Action the length of time a drug is present in the blood at or above the level needed to produce an effect or response. (p.11)
Elimination The inactivation or removal of drugs from the body accomplished by certain body systems. (p.16)
Enteral Rout Movement of drugs from outside the body to the inside using the gastrointestinal tract. (i.e. Enteric coated medication.) (p.12)
Extrinsic Drugs Drugs that are man made (synthetic) or derived from another species; not made by the human body. (p.3)
First-Pass Loss Rapid inactivation or elimination of oral drugs as a result of liver metabolism. (p.16)
Generic Name National and international public drug name to indicate the usual use or chemical composition of a drug. (i.e. Acetaminophen) (p.4)
Half-Life The time span needed for one half of a drug dose to be eliminated. (p.17)
Herbals Natural products made from plants that cause a response in the body similar to that of a drug. Also called Botanicals. (p.5)
High-Alert Drug A drug that has an increased risk of patient harm if used in error. (i.e. Heparin) (p.5)
Intended Action Desired effect of a drug on a specific body system. (Main Effect) (p.3)
Intrinsic Drugs Hormones, enzymes, growth factors, and other chemicals made by the body that change the activity of cells. (p.3)
Loading Dose The first dose of a drug when it is larger then all subsequent doses. Used when it takes more drug to reach a desired effect then what it does to maintain it. (p.17)
Mechanism of Action Exactly how, at a cellular level, a drug changes the activity of a cell. (p.6)
Metabolism Chemical reaction in the body that changes the chemical shape or content of a drug, preparing it for elimination from the body. (p.15)
Minimum Effective Concentration (MEC) The smallest amount necessary in the blood or target tissue to result in a measurable intended action. (p.11)
Over-The-Counter (OTC) Drugs that are approved for purchase without a prescription. (p.4)
Parenteral Rout Movement of a drug from outside of the body to inside of the body by injection. (p.12)
Peak Maximum blood drug level. (p.18)
Percutaneous Rout Movement of a drug from outside the body to inside by the skin or mucous membranes. (p.12)
Personal/Idiosyncratic Response Unexpected adverse effects that are unique to the patient and are not related to the mechanism of action of the drug. (p.10)
Pharmacodynamics Ways in which drugs work to change body function. (p.6)
Pharmacokinetics How the body changes drugs; drug metabolism. (p.11)
Pharmacology The science and study of drugs, and their effect on living things. (p.3)
Physiologic Effect The change in body function as an outcome of the mechanism of action for a drug. (p.8)
Potency The strength of an intended action produced at a given drug dose. (p.11)
Prescription An order written or dictated by a state-approved prescriber for a specific drug therapy for a specific patient.(p.5)
Prescription Drugs The legal status of any drug that is consider unsafe for self-medication or has a potential for addiction and is only available by prescription written by a state-approved health care professional. (p.5)
Receptors Physical place on or in a cell where a drug can bind and interact. (p.6)
Sequestration The "trapping" of drugs within a certain body tissue, delaying their elimination and extending their duration of action. (p.15)
Side Effects Any effect on of a drug on body cells or tissue that is not the intended action of a drug. (p.3)
Steady State The point at which the elimination of a drug is balanced with its entry, resulting in a constant effective blood level of a drug. (p.11)
Target Tissue The actual cells or tissues affected by the mechanism of action or intended actions of a specific drug. (p.6)
Transdermal Type of percutaneous drug delivery in which the drug is applied to the skin, passes through the skin, and enters the blood stream. (p.12)
Trough The lowest or minimal drug level. (p.18)
Vaporized Changing a drug from a liquid form to a gas that can be absorbed by the body through inhalation. (i.e. Nebulizer) (p.17)
Created by: Barrowfell