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# Org. Bvr. Ch. 14

### Organizational Behavior 13e chapter 14

TermDefinition
Decision Making Defining problems, gathering information, generating alternatives, and choosing a course of action.
Certainty The condition under which individuals are fully informed about a problem, alternative solutions are known, and the results of each solution are known.
Risk The condition under which individuals can define a problem, specify the probability of certain events, identify alternative solutions, and state the probability of each solution leading to a result.
Probability The percentage of times that a specific result would occur if an individual were to make the same decision a large number of times.
Objective Probability The likelihood that a specific result will occur, based on hard facts and numbers.
Subjective Probability The likelihood that a specific result will occur, based on personal judgement.
Uncertainty The condition under which an individual does not have the necessary information to assign probabilities to the outcomes of alternative solutions.
Bounded Rationality Describes the limitations of rationality and emphasizes the decision making processes often used by individuals or teams.
Satisficing The tendency to select an acceptable, rather than an optimal, goal or decision.
Acceptable Easier to identify and achieve, less controversial, or otherwise safer than the best alternative.
Escalating Commitment A process of continuing or increasing the allocation of resources to a course of action even though a substantial amount of feedback indicates that the choice made is wrong.
Risk Propensity The tendency of an individual or team to make or avoid decisions in which the anticipated outcomes are unknown.
Problem Framing The tendency to interpret issues and options in either positive or negative terms.
Dictionary Rule Involves ranking items the same way a dictionary does: one criterion (analogous to one letter) at a time.
Knowledge Management The art of adding or creating value by systematically capitalizing on the know-how, experience, and judgment found both within and outside an organization.
Explicit Knowledge Published in internally generated reports and manuals, books, magazines, journals etc.
Tacit Knowledge The information, competencies, and experience possessed by employees.
Enabling Technologies Intranets, the internet, search engines, work-flow software.
Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) An automatic identification method that relies on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders.
Evidence-Based Management Proceeds from the premise that using a better, deeper diagnosis and employing facts to the extent possible enable managers and leaders to do their jobs better.
Political Decision Making Describes situations where the parties have separate and different interests, goals, and values and, therefore, employ self serving tactics.
Scapegoating The casting of blame for problems or shortcoming on an innocent or only partially responsible individual, team, or department.
Creativity The ability to visualize, generate, and implement new ideas or concepts or new associations between existing ideas or concepts that are novel and useful.
Perceptual Blocks The failure to use all of the senses in observing, failure to investigate the obvious, failure to distinguish between cause and effect.
Cultural Blocks A desire to conform to established norms, overemphasis on competition or conflict avoidance and smoothing.
Emotional Blocks The fear of making a mistake, fear and distrust of others, grabbing the first idea that comes along.
Preparation Stage Thoroughly investigating an issue or problem to ensure that all of its aspects have been identifies and understood.
Concentration Stage Focusing energies and resources on identifying and solving an issue or problem.
Incubation Stage An internal and unconscious ordering of information. Distancing yourself from the problem.
Illumination Stage The moment of discovery, the instant of recognition.
Verification Stage The testing of the created solution or idea.
Lateral Thinking Method A deliberate process and set of techniques for generating new ideas by changing an individual's or team's way of perceiving and interpreting information.
Vertical Thinking Method A logical step by step process of developing ideas by proceeding continuously from one bit of information to the next.
Reversal Techinque Examining a problem by turning it completely around, upside down, or inside out.
Analogy Technique Involves developing a statement about similarities among objects, persons, and situations.
Cross-Fertilization Technique Asking experts from other fields to view the problem and suggest methods for solving it from their own areas of expertise.
Osborn's Creativity Process A 3 phase decision making process that involves fact finding, idea finding, and solution finding.
Fact Finding Phase Defining the issue or problem and gathering and analyzing relevant data.
Idea Finding Phase Generating tentative ideas and possible leads.
Solution Finding Phase Generating and evaluating possible courses of action and deciding how to implement the chosen course of action.
Brainstorming An unrestrained flow of ideas in a group or team with all critical judgements suspended. Osborn made 75 general questions to go along with this.
Electronic Branstorming The use of collaborative software technology to anonymously enter and automatically disseminate ideas in real time to all team members, each of whom may be stimulated to generate other ideas.
Created by: Shibishob

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