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Intro to Psychology

Chapters 5,6,10

Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience.
Classical conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response.
Neutral stimulus A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest.
Unconditioned stimulus A stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned.
Unconditioned response A response that is natural and needs no training.
Conditioned stimulus A once-neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned response A response that, after conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus.
Phobias Intense, irrational fears.
Extinction A basic phenomena of learning that occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears. It occurs when the conditioned stimuli is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus.
Spontaneous recovery The reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning.
Stimulus generalization A process in which, after a stimulus has been conditioned to produce a particular response, stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus produce the same response.
Stimulus discrimination The process that occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another that one evokes a conditioned response but the other does not; the ability to differentiate between stimuli.
Operant conditioning (B.F. Skinner) Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences.
Edward L. Thorndike's law of effect Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated.
Reinforcement The process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated. (Reinforcement is the central concept of operant conditioning)
Reinforcer Any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again.
Primary reinforcer A stimulus that satisfies some biological need and works naturally, regardless of a person's previous experience (ex: food for the hungry, warmth for the cold, relief for a person in pain).
Secondary reinforcer A stimulus that becomes reinforcing because of its association with a primary reinforcer (ex: money because you can buy food, a primary reinforcer, with it).
Positive reinforcer A stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response.
Negative reinforcer An unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future.
Punishment A stimulus that decreases the probability that a previous behavior will occur again.
Positive Punishment weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus.
Negative punishment consists of the removal of something unpleasant.
Schedules of reinforcement Different patterns of frequency and timing of reinforcement following desired behavior.
Continuous reinforcement schedule Reinforcing of a behavior every time it occurs.
Partial (or intermittent) reinforcement schedule Reinforcing of a behavior some but not all of the time,
fixed-ratio schedule A schedule by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made.
Variable-ratio schedule A schedule by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses rather than after a fixed number.
Fixed-interval schedule A schedule that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low.
Variable-interval schedule A schedule by which the time between reinforcements varies around some average rather than being fixed.
Shaping The process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
Behavior modification A formalized technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones.
Cognitive learning theory An approach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning.
Latent learning Learning in which a new behavior is acquired but is not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it.
Observational learning Learning by observing the behavior of another person, or model.
Encoding The initial process of recording information in a form usable to memory. (1st stage in remembering something).
Storage The maintenance of material saved in memory (retaining info). The second process to memory. Basically, information saved fo future use.
Retrieval Recovery of stored info.
Memory The process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information.
What is the order of the three-stage model of memory? Information first goes into the sensory memory (forgetting typically withing 1 second), then it movies into the short-term memory (forgetting within 12-25 seconds), finally it may go into the long-term memory.
Sensory memory The initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant. Despite it's brief duration, its precision is high (can store an almost exact replica of each stimulus to which it is exposed).
Short-term memory Memory that holds info for 15-25 seconds and stores it according to its meaning rather than as mere sensory stimulation. Short-term memory has incomplete representational capabilities.
Long-term memory Memory that stores info on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve.
Ionic memory (type of sensory memory) Reflects info from the visual system. It seems to last less than a second.
Echoic memory (type of sensory memory) Stores auditory information coming from the ears. It typically fades within 2 or 3 seconds.
Chunk A grouping of information that can be stored in short-term memory.
What is the specific amount of info that can be held in short-term memory? 7 chunks of info, with variations up to plus or minus 2 chunks.
In what type of of memory does info 1st have meaning? Short-term memory.
Rehearsal The repetition of info that has entered short-term memory.
What 2 things does rehearsal accomplish? 1.) As long as the info is repeated, it is maintained in short-term memory. 2.) More importantly, rehearsal allows us to transfer information into long-term memory.
Elaborative rehearsal Information is considered and organized in some fashion. Ex: expanding the info to make it fit into a logical framework, linking it to another memory, turning it into an image, or transforming it in some other way.
Mnemonics Formal techniques for organizing info in a way that makes it more likely to be remembered. Ex: spaces on the music staff spell the word FACE.
What technique is used to move info into long-term memory? Elaborative rehearsal.
Working memory (related to short-term memory) A set of active, temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information. Working memory permits us to keep info in an active state briefly so that we can do something with the information.
Central executive processor It is involved in reasoning and decision-making. The central executive processor coordinates 3 distinct storage-and-rehearsal systems: the visual store, the verbal store and the episodic buffer.
Visual store Specializes in visual and spatial information.
Verbal store Holds and manipulates material relating to speech, words, and numbers.
Episodic buffer Contains info that represents episodes or events.
What can reduce the effectiveness of working memory by reducing its capacity? Stress
Serial position effect (long-term memory) The ability to recall info in a list depends on where in the list an item appears.
Primacy effect (long-term memory) Occurs, in which items presented early in a list are remembered better.
Recency effect (long-term memory) Items presented late in a list are remembered best.
What are the several different components of long-term memory called? Memory modules.
Declarative memory (long-term memory module) Memory for factual information: names, faces,, dates, and facts, such as "a bike has two wheels." (info about things)
Procedural memory (or non-declarative memory) (long-term memory module) Refers to memory for skills and habits, such as how to ride a bike or hit a baseball. (how to do things)
What are the 2 subdivisions of declarative memory? Semantic memory and episodic memory.
Semantic memory Memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts.
Episodic memory Memory for events that occur in a particular time, place, or context.
Semantic networks Mental representations of clusters of interconnected information.
Spreading activation Activating one memory triggers the activation of related memories.
Engram The term for the physical memory trace in the brain that corresponds to a memory.
Hippocampus A part of the brain's limbic system that plays a role in the consolidation of memories. The hippocampus aids in the initial encoding of information (acts as neurological e-mail system).
Where is info stored after being encoded in the hippocampus? Cerebral cortex.
Amygdala A part of the limbic system that is especially involved with memories involving emotion.
Long-term potentiation Shows certain neural pathways become easily excited while a new response is easily being learned.
Consolidation Process by which memories become fixed and stable in long-term memory.
What is the engram (physical stuff of memory) produced by? A complex of biochemical and neural processes.
Tip of the tongue phenomenon The inability to recall info that one realizes one knows- a result of the difficulty of retrieving info from long-term memory.
Recall Memory task in which specified info must be retrieved.
Recognition Memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to identify it from a list of alternatives.
Retrieval cues A retrieval cue is a stimulus that allows us to RECALL more easily info that is in long-term memory. It may be a word, an emotion, or sound; whatever the specific cue, a memory will suddenly come to mind when the retrieval cue is present.
Why is recall more difficult than recognition? Recall consists of a series of processes: a search through memory, retrieval of potentially relevant info, and then a decision regarding whether the info you found is accurate. In contrast, recognition is simpler because it involves fewer steps.
Levels-of-processing theory Theory of memory that emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed. It suggests that the amount of info processing that occurs when material is initially encountered is central in determining how much of the info is remembered.
How are memories processed in deeper level and in shallow levels and in what levels are memories retained longer? At shallow levels, info is processed merely in terms of its physical and sensory aspects. At the deepest level of processing info is analyzed in terms of its meaning. Memories are retained longer when processed in deeper levels.
Explicit memory Intentional or conscious recollection of info. Ex: when trying to remember a date or name we have encountered or learned previously, we are searching our explicit memory.
Implicit memory Memories of which people are not consciously aware but that can affect subsequently performance and behavior. Ex: skills that operate automatically and without thinking. It is related to prejudice and discrimination.
Priming A phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept (called prime) later makes it easier to recall related info, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept.
What is one way that memory specialists study implicit memories? Priming.
Flashbulb memories Memories related to a specific, important or surprising event that are recalled easily and with vivid imagery. Ex: 9/11. Details recalled in flashbulb memories are often inaccurate, particularly when they involve highly emotional events.
Source amnesia Occurs when an individual has a memory for some material but cannot recall where he /she encountered it. Ex: meeting someone you know but you can't remember where you'd met that person initially.
Constructive processes (Frederic Bartlett, British psychologist) Processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events.
Schemas Organized bodies of info stored in memory that bias the way new info is interpreted, stored, and recalled.
What affects the reliability of our memories? Our expectations and knowledge- and prejudices. Memory is affected by the emotional meaning of experiences.
What are the benefits of false memories? False memories may allow us to keep hold of positive self-images. They may also help us maintain positive relationships with others as we construct overly positive views of others.
Repressed memories (based on Freud's psychoanalytic theory) Recollections of events that are initially so shocking that the mind responds by pushing them into the unconscious.
How do false memories develop? False memories develop when people are unable to recall the source of a memory of a particular event about which they have only vague recollections.
Autobiographical memories Our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own lives. Autobiographical memories encircle the episodic memories we hold about ourselves.We tend to forget info about our past that is incompatible with the way we currently see ourselves.
Why can forgetting be a good thing/ Memory failure is important to remembering important info. Forgetting helps keep unwanted and unnecessary info from interfering with retrieving info that is wanted and necessary. Forgetting also helps us form general impressions and recollections.
Why do we forget? We may not have paid attention in the 1st place (failure of encoding). Several processes account for memory failures, including decay, interference, and cue-dependent forgetting.
Decay The loss of info in memory through its non-use. This explanation for forgetting assumes that memory traces, the physical changes that take place in the brain when new material is learned, simply fade away or disintegrate over time.
Interference The phenomenon by which info in memory disrupts the recall of other info.
Cue-dependent forgetting Forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle info that is in memory.
Proactive interference Interference in which info learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later. What you already know is interfering with the new things. The past interferes with the present.
Retroactive interference interference in which material that was learned later disrupts the retrieval learned earlier. The present interferes with the past.
Alzheimer's disease A progressive brain disorder that heads to a gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities.
Amnesia Memory loss that occurs without other mental difficulties.
Retrograde amnesia Amnesia in which memory is lost for occurrences prior to a certain event, but not for new events.
Anterograde amnesia Amnesia in which memory is lost for events that follow an injury. Info cannot be transferred from short-term to long-term memory.
Korsakoff's syndrome A disease that afflicts long-term alcoholics, leaving some abilities intact but including hallucinations and a tendency to repeat the same story.
Psychodynamic approaches to personality (Sigmund Freud) Approaches that assume that personality is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness and over which they have no control.
Psychoanalytic theory Freud's theory that unconscious forces act as determinants of personality.
Unconscious A part of the personality that contains the memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which the individual is not aware.
Preconscious Makes up a little of the unconscious and contains material that is not threatening and is easily brought to mind, such as the knowledge that 2+2=4.
According to Freud why are there wishes, desires, and demands and needs hidden from conscious awareness? They are hidden away because of the conflicts and pain they would cause if they were part of our everyday lives.
Id The raw unorganized, inborn part of personality whose sole purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses. Basically, primitive, instinctual cravings and longings. (pleasure principle)
Ego The part of the personality that provides a buffer between the id and the outside world. (Reality principle) restrains the id to keep individual safe and help them integrate into society.
Superego According to Freud, the final personality structure to develop; it represents the rights and wrongs of society as handed down by a person's parents, teachers, and other important figures. It includes the conscious.
Psychosexual stages Developmental periods that children pass through during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges (in which sexuality is more about experiencing pleasure and less about lust).
What are the 5 psychosexual stages? Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.
Fixations Conflicts or concerns that persist beyond the developmental period in which they first occur. Such conflicts may be due to having needs ignored or being overindulged during the earlier period.
According to Freud, what causes fixation? Failure to resolve the conflicts at a particular psychosexual stage.
Oral stage (1st stage) Birth to 12-18 months. Interest in oral gratification from sucking, eating, mouthing, biting. Weaning (withdrawing the breast or bottle) represents the main conflict during oral stage.
What does fixation at the oral stage result in an adult? An adult who was unusually interested in oral activities: Eating, talking, smoking- or who showed symbolic sorts of interests such as being "bitingly" sarcastic or very gullible ("swallowing" anything).
anal stage (2nd stage) 12-18 to 3 years. Gratification from expelling and withholding feces; coming to terms with society's controls relating toilet training.
What does fixation at the anal stage result in an adult? Fixation during the anal stage might result in unusual rigidity, orderliness, punctuality- or extreme disorderliness or sloppiness- in adulthood.
Phallic stage (3rd stage) 3 to 5-6 years. Interest in the genitals (child's pleasure focuses on the genitals), coming to terms with oedipal conflict leading to identification with same-sex parent.
Oedipal conflict A child's sexual interest in in his/her opposite-sex parent, typically resolved through identification with the same-sex parent.
Identification The process of wanting to be like another person as much as possible, imitating that person's behavior and adopting similar beliefs and values.
What does fixation at the phallic stage result in an adult? Improper sex-role behavior and failure to develop a conscious.
Latency period (4th stage) 5-6 years to adolescence (puberty). Sexual concerns largely unimportant. Sexual interests become dormant, even in the unconscious.
Genital stage (5th stage) Adolescence to adulthood. Reemergence of sexual interests and establishment of mature sexual relationships. According to Freud, the period from puberty until death, marked by mature sexual behavior (sexual intercourse).
Anxiety An intense, negative emotional experience. According to Freud anxiety is a danger signal to the ego.
Neurotic anxiety Irrational impulses emanating from the id threaten to burst through and become uncontrollable.
Defense mechanism In Freudian theory, unconscious strategies that reduce anxiety by distorting reality and concealing the source of the anxiety away from themselves.
Repression The primary defense mechanism in which unacceptable or unpleasant id impulses are pushed back into the unconscious Ex: A woman is unable to recall that she was raped.
Regression People behave as if they were at an earlier stage of development. Ex: A boss has a temper tantrum when an employee makes a mistake.
Displacement The expression of an unwanted feeling or thought is redirected from a more threatening powerful person to a weaker one. Ex: A brother yells at his younger sister after a teacher gives him an F.
Rationalization People provide self-justifying explanations in place of the actual, but threatening, reason for their behavior. Ex: A student who goes out drinking the night before a big test rationalizes his behavior by saying the test isn't all that important.
Denial People refuse to accept or acknowledge an anxiety-producing piece of info. Ex: A student refuses to believe she has flunked a course.
Projection People attribute unwanted impulses and feelings to someone else. Ex: A man who is unfaithful to his wife and feels guilty suspects that his wife is unfaithful.
Sublimation People duvet unwanted impulses into socially approved thoughts, feelings, or behaviors. Ex: A person with strong feelings of aggression becomes a soldier.
Reaction formation Unconscious impulses are expressed as their opposite in consciousness. A mother who unconsciously resents her child acts in an overly loving way toward the child.
Collective unconscious (Carl Jung) According to Jung, a common set of ideas, feelings, images, and symbols that we inherit from our ancestors, the whole human race, and even animal ancestors from the distant past. Ex: love of mother, fear of snakes, belief in supreme being).
Archetypes (Carl Jung) According to Jung, universal symbolic representations of a particular person, object, or experience.
Who suggested that personality develops in the context of social relationships and depends particularly on the relationship between parents and child? Karen Horney.
Who proposed that the primary human motivation is a striving for superiority, not in terms of superiority over others but in a quest for self-improvement and perfection. Alfred Adler.
Inferiority complex (Alfred Adler) Adults who have not been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority they developed as children
Created by: Lilly0411
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