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Unit 4: Heart

Medications affecting Blood Pressure

ACE inhibitors (Pg. 249); generic name ending Prils, ex: Captopril
What does ACE inhibitor stand for? Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
What do ACE inhibitors do? block conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II
ACE Inhibitor affects the body how... vasodilation excretion of na and water retention of K by kidneys
When to use ACE inhibitors HTN Heart failure MI (decrease mortality) Diabetic/non-diabetic nephropathy
Adverse effects of ACE Orthostatic HTN Cough Hyperkalemia
Captopril Side effects: rash and dysgeusia (altered taste Neutropenia
Pregnancy risk for ACE inhibitors Category D
ARBs (pg. 252); generic name ending Sartan; ex: Losartan
What does ARB stand for? Angiotensin II Receptor blockers
What do ARBs do? Block action of angiotensin II in body
ARBs affect the body how... Vasodilation Excretion of sodium and water Retention of Potassium
When to use ARBs HTN Heart failure Stroke Prevention Delay profession of diabetic nephropathy
Major difference between ACE/ARBS Cough and hyperkalemia and not adverse affects of ARBs
Aldosterone Antagonists (AA) (pg. 253)...two meds eplerenone spironolactone
What do aldosterone antagonists do? reduce blood volume by blocking aldosterone receptors in kidney which causes excretion of sodium and water
When to use aldosterone antagonists? HTN Heart failure
How to remember aldosterone antagonists? We will SE you at AA)
Side effects of aldosterone antagonists? hyperkalemia hyponatremia Dizzy Flu-like symptoms
Contraindications for aldosterone antagonists? high K levels kidney impairment
Direct Renin Inhibitors (pg. 254) ...one med aliskiren
How to remember direct renin inhibitors ren sounds like renin
What do direct renin inhibitors do? inhibit production of angiotensin I (which produces angiotensin II and aldosterone)
Calcium channel blockers (pg. 255); generic name endings Pines (difedipine, amlodipine, felodipine, nicardipine) but also verapamil and diltazem
Actions of Nifedipine on the body blocks ca channels in blood vessels causing vasodilation
Actions of Verapamil and diltiazem blocks ca channels in blood vessels Decrease force of heart, decreased heart rate, slow rate of conduction
Which calcium channel blockers also help cardiac dysrhythmias verapamil and diltiazem
Alpha Adrenergic Blockers (Sympatholytics) (pg. 259) generic name endings zosin (prazosin, doxazoin mesylate, terazosin)
How to remember alpha adrenergic blockers sound like dinosaurs, AAB (and also affects bladder)
What do alpha adrenergic blockers do? venous/arterial dilation smooth muscle relaxation or bladder neck
Why would you use alpha adrenergic blockers? HTN decrease manifestations of BPH (urgency, frequency and dysuria)
Centrally acting alpha2 agonists (pg 260) 3 drugs clonidine, guanfacine HCl, methyldopa
What do centrally acting alpha2 agonists do? decrease sympathetic outflow = bradycardia and decreased CO vasodilation (decreased BP)
Why would we use centrally acting alpha2 agonists? HTN severe cancer pain investigational use
Side effects of centrally acting alpha2 agonists drowsy/sedation dry mouth rebound HTN if abrupt discontinuation
Beta adrenergic blockers (Sympatholytics) (pg. 262); generic endings LOL's
Beta1 beta adrenergic blockers affects ONLY the heart metoprolol atenolol metoprolol succinate esmolol
Beta1/2 beta adrenergic blockers affecting BOTH heart and lungs Propranolol Nadolol
What do beta adrenergic blockers do? decreased HR decrease myocardial contractility decreased rate of conduction vasodilation
Why would we use beta adrenergic blockers? HTN angina, tachydysrhythmias, HF, MI
Which medication is contraindicated for someone with asthma? Nonselective beta1/2 beta adrenergic blockers
Which beta blockers can be given IV? atenolol, metoprolol, labetol, propranolol
Medications for HTN crisis (pg. 265) Nitroprusside - centrally acting vasodilator Nitroglycerin - vasodilator Nicardipine - CCB Clevidipine - CCB Enalaprilat - ACE Esmolol HCL - ACE
Purpose of medications for HTN crisis vasodilate arteries and veins causing rapid reduction of BP
Adverse effects of htn medications cyanide poisoning (HA, drowsy) Thiocyanate toxicity (delirium, psychosis)
Created by: anniehaas