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Chapter 24

Fluid Blance

Why must the volume and composition of fluids in the body be maintained within narrow limits? Excess fluids= HTN, CHF, peripheral edema. Depletion of fluids=dehydration, shock Fluid must contain specific amounts of ions/electrolytes and be maintained at particular pH values. Acc of excess acids or bases change pH values can = death.
What happens when you have a depletion of fluids? Dehydration, shock.
What happens when you have excess fluids? Can lead to HTN, CHF, and peripheral edema.
Accumulation of excess acid or bases can change pH of body fluids and lead to what? Death, if left untreated.
What is the greatest bulk of body fluid? Water, which serves as the universal solvent in which most nutrients, electrolytes, and minerals dissolve.
Water can be located in what two compartments? 1) Intracellular fluid compartment (ICF), water inside cells. (2/3, 40%) 2) Extracellular fluid compartment (ECF), water outside cells (1/3 20%)
What are the two compartments of extracellular fluid? 1) Fluid in the plasma (intravascular space) 2) Fluid in the interstitial spaces between cells.
What is Osmolality? A solute. Is the measure of dissolved particles or solutes. Laboratory value that can be precisely measured. Normal ranges of Osmolality is 275-295 milliosmols per kilogram (mOsm/kg)
What is a solute? Sodium, glucose and urea. They determine osmolality. Sodium is the greatest contributor.
What is tonicity? A solution is able to cause a change in water movement across a membrane due to osmotic forces. General term used to describe concentration of IV fluids.
What is isotonic? normal plasma levels, have the same concentration as solutes (same osmolality) as plasma. No net fluid shift.
What is hypertonic solutions? What happens when a hypertonic IV solution is administered? Contain greater concentration of solutes than plasma. Water moves from Interstitial Fluid C (IFC) -> plasma by osmosis. Causes dehydration.
What is hypotonic solutions? What happens when hypotonic IV solution is administered? Have lesser concentration of solutes than plasma(intravascular space). Water moves from plasma-->IFC. Causes hypotension, due to water movement out of vascular system.
How is water output achieved in the body? Kidneys, lungs, skin, feces, and sweat.
How do you maintain water balance? Water intake must equal water output.
Fluid deficit disorders cause what? Shock or dehydration, which are treated by administering oral or IV fluids.
Fluid excess disorders are treated with what? Diuretics. Excess fluid, lead to HTN, CHF, and peripheral edema(causes swelling).
Created by: alexis8787



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