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Patient Assessment

Assessment

QuestionAnswer
What is Mydriasis and what can cause it to occur? Dilated pupils; brain death, catecholomines, atropine.
What is Miosis and what can cause it to occur? Constricted pupils: parasympathetic stimulants, opiates.
What two cranial nerves must be intact for the pupils to react properly? Cranial nerve 2 & 3
What does PERRLA stand for? Pupils Equal Round Reactive to Light and Accommodating
What is ptosis? Drooping of the upper eye lid (3rd cranial nerve involvement, congenital defects, cranial tumors, early signs of neuromuscular disease and vent failure
What is Diplopia? Blurred or double vision
What is Nystagmus? Involuntary cyclic movement of the eyeballs.
What mallampati score offers the greatest oral cavity view? Grade 1
Describe vesicular breath sounds soft and low pitched
Describe bronchovesicular breath sounds Slightly louder breath sounds (compared to vesicular)
Describe bronchial breath sounds Loud (tracheal)
Describe crackles Are intermittent, nonmusical, and brief - like dots in time.
Describe fine crackles (discontinuous sound) Are soft, high pitched, and very brief (5-10msec)
Define coarse crackles (discontinuous sound) Are somewhat louder, lower pitched, and not quite so brief (20-30msec)
Define Wheezes (continuous sound) Are relatively high pitched and have a hissing or shrill quality
Define Ronchi (continuous sound) Are relatively low pitched and have a snoring quality.
What are likely causes of wheezes? Bronchospasm (asthma, bronchitis, and CHF)
Describe "early inspiratory" crackles Opening proximal airways (asthma, emphysema, bronchitis)
Describe "late inspiratory" crackles Opening peripherally. Atelectasis, pulmonary edema, fibrosis.
Describe "inspiratory and expiratory" crackles Likely due to secretions (cleared by cough).
Describe the primary assessment The rapid priority assessment of ABCs or immediate threats to life (bleeding? C-Spine?)
Describe the secondary assessment Is the detailed approach to addressing all possible concerns or problems with the patient.
TICS Tenderness, Instability, Crepitus, and Subcutaneous emphysema
BLS Burns, Lacerations, and Swelling
DCAP Deformities, Contusions, Abrasions, and Penetrations
CMS Capillary refill. Mobility, and Sensitivity
SAMPLE Signs & symptoms (chief complaint), Allergies, Medications, Pat history Last meal, and Events
DPI Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage
FAST Focused Abdominal Sonogram for Trauma
Created by: bcarew2