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Science 9 Vocab

TermDefinition
Second Law of Thermodynmics Heat never spontaneously flows from a cold substance to a hot substance
Gravity on Earth (little g) 9.8m/s/s; the acceleration on earht
displacement How far out of place an object is
net force the total force acting on an object
support force a force that cancels gravity
temperature a measure of the average kinetic energy an object has
The Work Energy Theorm Whenever work is done energy changes
Law of Conservation of Momentum When no external force is applied, there is no change of momentum
system a collection of objects you are studying
force pairs forces that are equal in strength and opposite in direction and they occur at the same time
power the rate at which energy is changed from one form to another
electron a small negativley charged particle found outside the nucleus
weightlessness an absence of stress and strain resulting from externally appplied mechanical contact
mechanical equilibrium when the net force on an object is zero, its state of motion does not change
entropy natural systems want to disperse their energy
Watts the unit of power
energy the ablility to do work
radiation transfer of heat in the form of electromagnetic waves
parabola a curve that is shaped like the path of something that is thrown forward and high in the air and falls back to the ground
momentum mass x velocity
Kinetic Theory of Matter matter is made up of atoms which are always moving
beta a type of radiation where an elcetron is emitted during radioactive decay of the nucleus
carbon dating the process of estimating the age of a once living material by measuring the amount of carbon present in the material
free fall any motion of a body where its weight is the only force acting upon it
orbit the curved path, usually elliptical, described by a planet, satellite, spaceship, etc. around a celestial body
fusion the combinding of the nuclei of light atoms to heavier nuclei
fission the splitting of a nucleaus of a heavy atom into two main parts
heat thermal energy transferred from one substance to another because of the difference between the two substances
work the product of force and distance
Newton's Third Law When one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first
terminal velocity the highest velocity attainable by an object as it falls
Newton's Second Law The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
natural motion motion that occurs with a force
satellite a smaller body that revolves around a larger body
nucleus the center of an atom, contains the protons and neutrons
thermal expansion molecules in a hot substance move faster and farther apart
Thrid Law of Thermodynamics no system can reach a temperature of absolute zero
weight the force due to gravity that acts on an object's mass
Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred
inelastic collision a collision were objects are deformed
Universal Gravitiaional Constant the gravitional constant, approximently 6.613x 10>-11 Nx(m/kg)2
Inverse Square Law any physical law staing that a specificed physical quanity or intensity is inversable proportional to the square of the distance from the source that physical quanity
gamma rays electromagentic radiation admitted by the nucleus of an atom
interia the proporty of all matter allowing an object at rest ot stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion
elastic collision a collison were the objects are no deformed
neutron a neutral sub-particle found in the nucleus
Ohms law the statement that current in a circiut varies in direct proprtion to the voltage and inversilty with resitance
group a vertical colum in the periodic table
period a horizontal row in the periodic table
kinetic energy energy of motion
distnace how much ground is covered while an object is in motion
half life the time required for half the atoms in a sample of radioactive isotopes to decay
transmutation the conversion of an atomic nucleus of one element into the atomic nucleus of another atom
volume a measure of space
mass the measure of how much matter an object contains
unnatural force motion that occurs with a force
machines a device for multiplying forces or simply changing the direction of a force
friction a froce that opposes motion
projectile any object thrown into space by the exertion of a force
impuse the product of force and time
acceleration the rate of change of velocity
isotopes any member of a set of atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain different amount of neutrons
element any material that is made up of one type of atom
effiency a measure of work done for energy spent
velocity speed with a given direciton
speed the amount of distance per a unit of time
absolute zero when all molecules have lost alll avalible kinetic energy
calorie the energy rating of foods and fuels are measured by the energy released when they are burned
Impulse Momentum Relationship the more impuse, the more momentum
Newton's First Law an object in motion will stay in motion and an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force
foce a push or pull
convention the transfer of heat by motion of a fluid
thermal energy the total energy of all the atoms and molecules
electron shell a regin of space around the atomic nucleus in which electrons are found
atomic mass the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
valence electron an electron located in the outermost shell of an atom
potential energy stored energy due to position
alpha the weakest type of radiation can be stopped by a piece of paper, has two protons and two neutrons
First Law of Thermodynamics whewnever heat flows into of out of a system, the gain or loss of thermal energy equals the amount of heat transferred
Proton a positlvely charged particle of the nulcleus
Created by: freshmanfinals