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Pharmacology Exam 2

Why would you use aerosol delivery for a med? Deliver drug to site of action with limited systemic effect.
When aerosolized what happens if the particle size is too large? Too small? Too large: it becomes an irritant. Too small: not effective
Examples of pulmonary drugs: Bronchodilators, Mucolytics, antibiotics, surfactants
List three ways aerosolized drugs can be delivered. 1. Nebulizers (liquid to fine mist); 2. DPI (Dry Powder Inhaler); 3. MDI (Metered Dose Inhaler) with the use of a propellant
List some disadvantages to aerosol therapy. Getting the correct dose to the appropriate location, Deposition of drug in oral mucosa, Altered breathing pattern
What are three disadvantages specifically for Nebulizers? Duration of treatment; Improper cleaning after each use (allows growth of infective agents); May experience greater side effects
Atopy means: Being predispositioned to allergic disease. This underlies most cases of asthma.
What level is usually high with asthma? Immunoglobulin E (IG E) levels are usually high
Two features of an inflamed airway are: 1. Widened smooth muscle; 2. Larger mucus glands
The three goals when treating pulmonary disease such as asthma are: 1. Terminate acute bronchial constriction; 2. Reduce Inflammation; 3. Reduce hypersecretion of mucus.
What is unique about COPD airflow limitation? It is not reversible.
Treatment goals for COPD are: 1. Reduce inflammation; 2. Relieve bronchoconstriction; 3. Reduce the risk of or treat infection; 4. Control the cough.
What happens when a patient has COPD and gets a respiratory infection? The function of the tissue in the lung fails, Extra secretions are present, the environment is warm and dark (Perfect breading ground for bacteria)
Name two drugs that stimulate both beta 1 and beta 2 receptors? Epinephrine and Isoproterenol
What is the advantage of selective beta 2 agonists verses non=selective agonists? Fewer side effects
What are some uses for epinephrine as a pulmonary drug? Acute bronchoconstriction; Rapid therapeutic effect; bronchiolitis; RSV, Status asthmaticus
The term SABA refers to what? Short Acting Beta Agonists which include ultra-short acting, short acting, and intermediate acting beta adrenergic agonists
Ultra-short acting Beta 2 Agonists include: Isoproterenol (Isuprel) and Isoetharine (Bronkosol)
Short acting Beta 2 Agonists include: Metaproterenol (Metaprel, Alupent); Terbutaline (Brethine); Pirbuterol (Maxair)
Intermediate acting Beta 2 Agonists include: Albuterol (Proventil); Levalbuterol (Xopenex); Bitolterol (Tornalate)
Long acting beta 2 agonists include: Salmeterol (Servent - no acute response) and Formoterol (Foradil - minor acute response)
The term LABA refers to what? Long Acting Beta Agonists
Side effects of SABA and LABA when inhaled in high dose include: Shaking, nervousness, and tachycardia
Why would tachycardia be a side effect of beta 2 selective agonist when taken in high doses? In high enough doses, it will attach to all the beta 2 receptors and the overflow will then attach to beta 1 receptors due to the affinity and dose.
Created by: brian.belson



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