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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Memory Key Terms

TermDefinition
Memory the process by which we recollect prior experiences and information and skills learned in the past
Episodic memory the memory of a specific event
Flashbulb memories dear memories of emotionally significant moments or events
Semantic memory general knowledge that people remember
Explicit memory a memory of specific information
Implicit memory a memory that consists of the skills and procedures one has learned
Encoding the translation of information into a form in which it can be stored
Storage the maintenance of encoded information overtime
Maintenance rehearsal the repetition of new information in an attempt to keep from forgetting it
Elaborative rehearsal a memory device that creates a meaningful link between new information and the information already known
Retrieval Consists of locating stored information and returning it to conscious thought
Context-dependent memories information that is more easily retrieved in the context in which it was encoded and stored
State-dependent memories memories on which information is more easily retrieved when one is in the same physiological or emotional state as when the memory was originally encoded or learned
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon the belief that a piece of information is stored in our memory although we cannot retrieve it easily
Sensory memory the first stage of memory
Iconic memory the sensory register that briefly holds mental images of visual stimuli
Eidetic memory the maintenance of a very detailed visual memory after several months
Echoic memory the sensory register in which traces of sounds are held and may be retrieved within several seconds
Short-term memory memory that holds information briefly before it is stored or forgotten
Primary effect the tendency to recall the initial items in a series of items
Recency effect the tendency to recall the last items in a series
Chuncking the organization of items into familiar or manageable units
Interference occurs when new information appears in short-term memory and takes the place of what is already there
Long-term memory the type or stage of memory capable of large relatively permanent storage
Schemas an ideal or mental framework that helps one organize and interpret information
Recognition involves identifying objects or events that have been encountered before
Recall to bring back to mind
Relearning learning material a second-time, usually in less time than it was originally learned
Decay the fading away of a memory
Infantile amnesia forgetting of early events
Anterograde amnesia memory loss from trauma that prevents a person from forming new memories
Retrograde amnesia people forget the period leading up to a traumatic event
Created by: briannab0126