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Classical Conditioning a type of learning in which one learns to link one or more stimuli and anticipate events
Fixed Interval in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
Variable Internal in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable time intervals
Fixed Ratio in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
Variable Ratio in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
Positive Reinforcement works by presenting a motivating/reinforcing stimulus to the person after the desired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior more likely to happen in the future
Negative Reinforcement occurs when a certain stimulus (usually an aversive stimulus) is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. The likelihood of the particular behavior occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative consequence
Operant Conditioning can be described as a process that attempts to modify behavior through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence.
Social Learning Theory is the view that people learn by observing others. Associated with Albert Bandura's work in the 1960s, social learning theory explains how people learn new behaviors, values, and attitudes.
Observational Learning learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others
Recall retrieval of memory refers to the subsequent re-accessing of events or information from the past, which have been previously encoded and stored in the brain.
Recognition identification of a thing or person from previous encounters or knowledge
Retrieval the process of getting something back from somewhere
Short-Term Memory is the capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time. [While short-term and working memory persists for only about 20 to 30 seconds]
Long-Term Memory is the final stage of the dual memory model proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin, in which data can be stored for long periods of time. Information can remain in long-term memory indefinitely.
Flashbulb Memory is a vivid, enduring memory for how one learned about a surprising, shocking event. It thus involves memory for the source of event information, as opposed to memory for the event itself.
Echoic Memory one of the sensory memory registers; a component of sensory memory (SM) that is specific to retaining auditory information. The sensory memory for sounds that people have just perceived is the form of echoic memory.
The three steps to memory information processing memory, encoding storage and retrieval
Serial Positioning Effect the tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst.
Rehearsal the "cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over as a possible way of learning and remembering it"
Long-Term Potentiation is a persistent increase in synaptic strength following high-frequency stimulation of a chemical synapse. Studies of LTP are often carried out in slices of the hippocampus, an important organ for learning and memory.
Mnemonics the study and development of systems for improving and assisting the memory
Chunking group together so that they can be stored or processed as single concepts.
Implicit Memory is a type of memory in which previous experiences aid the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
Declarative Memory (sometimes referred to as explicit memory) is one of two types of long-term human memory. Declarative memory refers to memories that can be consciously recalled such as facts and knowledge.
Hypnosis the induction of a state of consciousness in which a person apparently loses the power of voluntary action and is highly responsive to suggestion or direction. Its use in therapy, typically to recover suppressed memories or to allow modification of behavi
Heuristic Memory a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but more error prone than algorithms
Algorithm a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
Framing the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
Fixation according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure seeking-energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflict were unresolved
Conformation Bias the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one's existing beliefs or theories.
Phonemes any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another
Morphemes a meaningful morphological unit of a language that cannot be further divided
Psychosexual Stages oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Broca's and Wernicke's Areas also called Wernicke's speech area, is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex linked, since the late nineteenth century, to speech (the other is Broca's area). It is involved in the production of written and spoken language.
Needs cannot avoid or help doing something.
Drives an innate, biologically determined urge to attain a goal or satisfy a need.
Glucose a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.
Empathy the ability to understand and share the feelings of another.
Psychosocial Model
Cognitive Model
Psychoanalytical Model
Phillip Pinel a French physician who was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral therapy.
ADHD Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder A chronic condition including attention difficulty, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness.
Anxiety a feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome.
Mood Disorders a psychological disorder characterized by the elevation or lowering of a person's mood, such as depression or bipolar disorder.
PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder A mental health condition triggered by experiencing or seeing a terrifying event.
OCD Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Excessive thoughts (obsessions) that lead to repetitive behaviors (compulsions).
Antisocial Personality Disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has a long-term pattern of manipulating, exploiting, or violating the rights of others.
Dopamine a compound present in the body as a neurotransmitter and a precursor of other substances including epinephrine. Treats circulation problems caused by heart attack, heart failure, kidney failure, low blood pressure, or surgery.
Serotonin Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system of animals, including humans
Phobias an extreme or irrational fear of or aversion to something.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder a psychological disorder characterized by excessive or disproportionate anxiety about several aspects of life, such as work, social relationships, or financial matters.
Suicide the action of killing oneself intentionally.
Bipolar Disorder a mental disorder marked by alternating periods of elation and depression.
A manic episode not a disorder in and of itself, but rather is a part of a type of bipolar disorder. A manic episode is characterized by period of at least 1 week where an elevated, expansive or unusually irritable mood, as well as notably persistent goal-directed activi
Schizophrenia a long-term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behavior, leading to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality and personal relationships into fantasy and delus
Projective Tests a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts projected by the person into the test.
Objective Tests that measures an individual's characteristics independent of rater bias or the examiner's own beliefs, usually by the administration of a bank of questions marked and compared against exacting scoring mechanisms that are completely standardized, much in t
Defense Mechanisms a mental process (e.g., repression or projection) initiated, typically unconsciously, to avoid conscious conflict or anxiety.
Self-Serving Bias is people's tendency to attribute positive events to their own character but attribute negative events to external factors.
Spotlight Effect the phenomenon in which people tend to believe they are noticed more than they really are. Being that one is constantly in the center of one's own world, an accurate evaluation of how much one is noticed by others has shown to be uncommon.
Reciprocal Determination the theory set forth by psychologist Albert Bandura that a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment.
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