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Unit 11

Psychological Disorders

TermDefinition
DSM-IV-TR The current diagnostic and statistical manual of the American Psychiatric Association that classifies, defines, and describes mental disorders.
Insanity The legal (not clinical) designation for the state of an individual judged to be legally irresponsible or incompetent.
Anxiety disorders Mental disorders marked by physiological arousal, feelings of tension, and intense apprehension without apparent reason.
Panic disorders An anxiety disorder in which sufferers experience unexpected, severe panic attacks that begin with a feeling of intense apprehension, fear, or terror.
Phobia A persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity or situation that is excessive and unreasonable, given the reality of the threat.
Social Phobia A persistent, irrational fear that arises in anticipation of a public situation in which others can observe an individual.
Obsessive-Compulsive disorder A mental disorder characterized by obsessions-recurrent thoughts, images, or impulses that recur or persist despite efforts to suppress them-and compulsions-repetitive, purposeful acts performed according to certain rules or in a ritualized manner.
Posttraumatic stress disorder Anxiety disorders characterized by the persistent re-experience of traumatic events through distressing recollections, dreams, hallucinations, or dissociate flashbacks.
Major mood disorder A mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of depression over an extended time, without the manic high phase of bipolar depression.
Bipolar disorder A mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania.
Manic episode A component of bipolar disorder characterized by periods of extreme elation, unbounded euphoria without sufficient reason, and grandiose thoughts or feelings about personal abilities.
Learned helplessness A general pattern of not responding in the presence of noxious stimuli that often follows after an organism has encountered non-contingent, inescapably aversive stimuli.
Dissociative disorder A personality disorder marked by a disturbance in the integration of identity, memory, or consciousness.
Dissociative identity disorder A dissociative mental disorder in which two or more distinct personalities exist within the same individual; formerly known as multiple personality disorder.
Schizophrenic disorder A severe form of psychopathology characterized by the breakdown of integrated personality functioning, withdrawal from reality. emotional distortions, and disturbed thought processes.
Hallucination False perceptions that occur in the absence of objective stimulation.
Delusions False or irrational beliefs maintained, despite clear evidence to the contrary.
Diathesis-stress disorder A hypothesis about the cause of certain disorders, such as schizophrenia, that suggest that genetic factors predispose an individual to a certain disorder but that environmental stress factors must impinge in order for potential risk to manifest itself.
Created by: Mr.Knock