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Atmosphere Review

QuestionAnswer
What is the Atmosphere? The mixture of gases that surrounds Earth; the outermost of the four spheres into which scientists divide Earth.
What is Air? A mixture of gases required for breathing; Air has mass, density, and pressure.
What is the Atmosphere made of? Is made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1 % trace gases.
How many layers does the Atmosphere have? Four.
What are the four layers of the Atmosphere? Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, and the Troposphere.
What is the Troposphere? The Troposphere is the lowest layer; it contains 75% of the gases in the atmosphere; the temperature decreases with altitude.
What is the Stratosphere? The Stratosphere lies above the troposphere; it contains the ozone layer which protects us from the ultraviolet rays of the sun; temperature increases with altitude.
What is the Mesosphere? The Mesosphere lies above the stratosphere; temperatures drop in this layer. Most meteors burn up in this layer.
What is the Thermosphere? The Thermosphere is the highest layer; temperatures are extremely high; there are very few molecules of air.
How is the Atmosphere heated? Conduction, Convection, and Radiation.
What does Radiation do? Radiation from the sun heats the Earth’s surface.
What does Conduction do? Conduction causes the heat energy from the Earth’s surface to transfer to the atmosphere.
What does Convection do? As the warm air rises, it cools, becomes more dense, and sinks back to the surface where it is warmed again. This process creates convection currents that constantly move through the atmosphere.
What are Global Winds? The sun does not heat all parts of the Earth evenly because the Earth is tilted. The unequal heating of the Earth causes differences in air pressure. The differences in air pressure cause air to circulate in global wind systems.
What is the Aurora Borealis? a colorful, glowing display in the sky caused when particles form the sun strike oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the ionosphere (Northern Lights)
What is Ozone? O3, is called Ozone, and is a Bad form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms. It is toxic (poisonous) to breathe.
What is Air Pollution? a change to the atmosphere that has harmful effects
What is Emissions? solid particles and gases released into the air from a smokestack or motor vehicle
What is Photochemical Smog? a brownish haze that is a mixture of ozone and other chemicals, formed when pollutants react with one another in the presence of sunlight
What is the Greenhouse effect? the process by which heat is trapped in the atmosphere by water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases that form a “blanket” around Earth
What is Global Warming? a gradual increase in the temperature of Earth’s atmosphere
How do Clouds form? A cloud forms when air cools and the water vapor in the air condenses (changes) into droplets.
Who were the cloud names invented by? Luke Howard
What are the 3 main cloud types? Cirrus, Stratus, and Cumulus.
Describe Cirrus Clouds. Very high, Thin and feathery, Soft and gentle, white, Indicates calm weather.
Describe Stratus Clouds. Lower clouds, Cover the whole sky and hide the sun, Flat and stretched-out, Gray, Indicates rain or snow, Makes fog (cloud close to the ground).
Describe Cumulus Clouds. Grow tall, Have a flat base, Fluffy/puffy, Look like cotton balls, If they are spread out, they indicate nice weather, If they are long and tall, they indicate short rain or snow showers.
Describe Cumulonimbus Clouds. Tallest clouds, Sometimes more than 10 miles high, Makes lightning, thunder, and heavy rain.
What is weather? the condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place
What does a thermometer do? Measure temperature.
What does a barometer measure? Air pressure.
What does a wind vane measure? Wind direction.
What does a Anemometer measure? Wind speed.
What does a Psychrometer measure? Humidity.
What is High Pressure? A high-pressure center of dry air; the air pressure is greater than surrounding air. A BIG letter H is the symbol for high pressure.
What is Low Pressure? A swirling center of low air pressure symbolized by a BIG letter L. The air pressure is lower than surrounding air pressure
What are Tornadoes? A rapidly whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that reaches down from a storm cloud to touch Earth’s surface, usually leaving a destructive path. Passes by in minutes.
What are Hurricanes? A tropical storm that has winds of 119 km per hour or higher; typically about 600 km across. Passes by in hours.
Who are Meteorologists? scientists who study the causes of weather and try to predict it
What is the Forecast? a prediction of what the weather will be in the future
What is Climate? The long term weather patterns in a given area are called the climate. The climate is influenced mainly by the latitude north or south of the equator.
What are Tropical Zones? Receive the most direct sunlight. The temperature is warm year round.
What are Temperate Zones? Have moderate temperatures and seasons.
What are Polar Zones? Receive little direct sunlight. Cold year round.
Created by: 3119244