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Cardiovascular II slides for Medical Pharmacology Final

What is angina? Sudden, severe, pressing chest pain radiating to the neck, jaw, back and arms
Why would you need nitroglycerin? Eventually converted to nitric oxide, which causes vasodilation by relaxing vascular smooth muscle
When would you use a sodium channel blocker for angina? Never
What type of lifestyle modifications would be needed to treat hypertension? Weight, DASH diet, salt, exercise, alcohol reduction
Which tree was salycilic acid derived from and has been used since the ancient greek times and what drug is it the precursor for? Willow tree. Aspirin
What drug is usually administered sublingually for classic angina or prinzmetal angina? Nitroglycerin
Side effect for Nitroglycerin? Headache
How must be Nitroglycerin Administration? After acute chest pain, take one pill sublingually, wait 5 min If pain persists, take another pill sublingually and wait 5 more min If pain still persists, take a third pill and dial 911
How does β-Blockers work? Decreases oxygen demands of the myocardium by lowering both the rate and force of contraction of the heart.
Calcium channel blockers have an _________ inotropic effect. Calcium channel blockers have an NEGATIVE inotropic effect
What types of drugs can be used to treat hypertension? Alfa-blockers, Beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, Diuretics, Renin inhibitors, Angiotensin receptor blockers
What is are the normal values for Systolic and Diastolic blood pressure? 120 mm Hg; 80 mm Hg.
Can diabetes cause hypertension? Yes
People with Angina, Diabetes and/or Hyperlypidemia may develop ____ blood pressure? People with Angina, Diabetes and/or Hyperlypidemia may develop HIGH blood pressure?
What are the lifestyle modifications for people recently diagnosed with Hypertension? Weight maintenance, DASH diet, avoid salty foods, Exercise and no Alcohol.
What drug can is usually used for Stage 1 Hypertension treatment? Thiazide-type diuretics.
What drugs can is usually used for Stage 2 Hypertension treatment? Two-drug combination for most patients. (Thiazide-type diuretics + ACE inhibitors, B-blockers or CCB)
African-American patients respond better to which drugs for Hypertension treatment? Diuretics and Calcium-channel blockers
African-American patients have a worse response to which drugs for Hypertension treatment? Beta-blockers or ACE inhibitors.
What type of drugs is not recommended to treat hypertension in elderly people. Beta-blockers.
What type of drugs is recommended to treat hypertension in elderly people. Calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors and diuretics.
How diuretics promote lower blood pressure? By increasing Sodium and Water Secretion.
Diuretics can induce _____________ and ______________ in 70%. (Potassium and acid uric concentration) Diuretics can induce HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERURICEMIA in 70%. (Potassium and sugar concentration)
What are the adverse effects of Beta blockers? Hypotension, Fatigue, Sexual dysfunction, Bradycardia and Insomnia.
ACE inhibitors is more effective in which ethnic group? In which condition these drugs would not be effective? Young caucasian patients, unless they are using diuretics.
What are the side effects of ACE inhibitors? Dry cough, rash, fever, altered taste, hypotension and hyperkalemia
Mainly dilates arterioles by reducing smooth muscle tone. Calcium Channel Blockers
Aspirin is a _________ inhibitor – in platelets arachidonic acid is converted by the _________ enzyme into clot forming factors Aspirin is a COX-1 inhibitor – in platelets arachidonic acid is converted by the COX-1 enzyme into clot forming factors
What is the role of Heparin? Anticoagulant
What are the adverses effects of Heparin? Bleeding, Hypersensitivity, Trombocytopenia.
Warfarin is a _________ antagonist Warfarin is a VITAMIN K antagonist
Folic acid promotes what cell behavior? How this can be beneficial for anemia treatment? Cell division, promoting proliferation of red blood cells.
Created by: 100001573433065



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