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JR Year Final Review

Radiography, Anatomy and Positioning with Techniques

QuestionAnswer
The hand is turned palm downward. The movement is called pronation
What is contralateral parts on the opposite sides of the body
What is ipsilateral parts on the same side of the body
A compound fracture indicates that there is a breach in the skin overlying the fracture; broken bones project thru the skin
A compound fracture is also known as open
Which vertebral level is located at the inferior costal margin L2, L3
What position or projection is being performed when the patient's right side is placed against the IR and the CR enters the left side of the body right lateral
What are the four fundamental body planes coronal, sagittal, transverse, oblique
In the leg, the fibula is ______ to the tibia lateral
Where does secondary ossification occur epiphyses, epiphyseal plate
Which plane transects the pelvis at the level of the 4th lumbar spinous process interiliac plane
How many bones are in the axial skeleton 206
Which bones are included in the axial skeleton 80 bones, skull, neck, thorax, vertebral column
How many bones are in the appendicular skeleton 126
Which bones are included in the appendicular skeleton clavicle, scapula, humerus, fibula, tibia, radius, ulna, hands, feet, femora
Which body pane divides the body into right and left equal halves midsagittal plane MSP
The middle and lateral regions of the abdomen right lateral, left lateral, umbilical
The upper and lateral regions of the abdomen are named right hypochondrium, left hypochondrium, epigastrium
chondra cartilage
The lower and lateral regions of the abdomen are named right and left inguinal, hypogastrium
Which anatomic term is the opposite meaning of distal proximal
What is the classification of joints that mean slightly movable ampiarthroses; symphysis (e.g. pubic symphysis, vertebral joints)
What is the classification of joints that mean immovable synarthroses; fibrous (e.g. sutures in the skull, gomphosis in gums and teeth)
If a joint is classified as diarthroses it is freely movable
The patient is lying on their abdomen. The CR is vertical and perpendicular to the floor. Which projection is being performed PA
Which body habitus is described as a massive build with a short deep thorax hypersthenic
The act of straightening a joint is termed extension
What are the functions of the skeleton storage for Ca, support the body, muscle attachment, protect internal organs, produce WBC/RBC, mechanical basis for movement
What is the Trendelenburg position feet are tilted above the head (preemie position)
What is the Fowler position the head is higher than the feet
What is the lithotomy position knees and hips are flexed, thighs abducted and rotated laterally (papsmear position)
Which radiographic position is performed with the patient erect and facing the IR and the right side of the body turned 45 degrees toward the IR RAO
How many vertebrae are in the sacrum 5 fused
An abnormally increased concavity of the lumbar spine is termed lordosis
The short ,thick processes that project posteriorly from each side of a vertebral body are called pedicles
The zygapophyseal joints of the lumbar spine form an angle of how many degrees from the posterior midsagittal plane? 30-60
The intervertebral foramina of the superior four lumbar vertebrae are situated at how many degrees from the midsagittal plane? 90
The condition of the lumbar spine in which there is anterior displacement of one vertebra over another is termed spondylolisthesis
On each side of the sacral base is a large wing-like mass called the ala
The angle of articulation between the sacrum and the ilia (the sacroiliac joints) is: 25-30 degrees
Which of the following should be performed to reduce the lordotic curveature of the lumbar spine for the AP projection flex the knees and hips
Where is the CR directed for an AP lumbosacral spine? iliac crests
The phase of respiration for an AP projection of the lumbar spine is suspend at the end of expiration
What should be done prior to the patient getting up from the xray table move the tube out of the way, lower the table, check that the image is optimal
Which of the following planes is placed perpendicular to the tabletop and centered to the midline of the grid/IR for a lateral lumbar spine MCP
While performing a lateral projection of the L5-S1 LS junction, the patient has a large waist, what would you do to ensure the CR passes parallel through the L5-S1 joint space? direct the CR cephalad a few degrees to compensate
If the lumbar spine cannot be adjusted so it is horizontal for the lateral projection, the CR should be angled how many degrees and in which direction: 5 men, 8 women caudad
Which of the following describes the central ray centering point for the L5-S1 lateral projection? 2" posterior to ASIS and 1.5" inferior to iliac crests
What specific set of zygapophyseal joints is demonstrated in the RAO position left/upside
How many degrees is the body rotated for the AP oblique projection of the sacroiliac joint? 25-30
Women may not be shielded for an AP projection of: sacrum and coccyx
Placement of a lead blocker on the table, directly behind the patient, during a lateral projection of the L-S spine will decrease the amount of scatter reaching the IR. True or False True
Which of the following is defined as: malignancy involving the bone marrow multiple myeloma
Which of the following positions are most commonly used to evaluate for motion in the area of interest following spinal fusion surgery? lateral with hyperflexion and hyperextension
What is the term given to the superior surface of the sacrum? base
On a radiograph of a well positioned oblique lumbar spine, you should see which of the following? scotty dogs L1-L4
The coccyx bone in the adult is described as the following? 3-5 rudimentary vertebrae fused into one bone
A radiograph of a posterior oblique (LPO) reveals that the downside pedicles and zygapophyseal joints are projected over the posterior portion of the vertebral bodies of L1-L4. Which specific positioning error is evident here? the patient is over rotated
A radiograph of an AP axial coccyx reveals that the symphysis pubis is superimposed over the tip of the coccyx? What would you do to correct for this? increase the caudad angle
What is the term given to the inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis condition that is most common in males in their 30's ankylosing spondylitis
The symphysis pubis is at the same level as which of the following structures tip of the coccyx
The nose of the scotty dog corresponds to what structure of the lumbar vertebrae transverse process
The eye of the scotty dog corresponds to what structure on the vertebrae? pedicle
A study is being performed on a child for scoliosis, the technologist could place the child PA to avoid any unnecessary exposure to the gonadal region and breasts. True or False True
The Ferguson Method for scoliosis is performed with the patient supine. True or False False
The body rotation required to visualize the lumbar zygagpophyseal joint varies depending upon what level is being observed. True or False true
What is the condition which is characterized by thick, soft bone marked by bowing and fractures. Paget's disease
The respiration instructions for radiography of the lumbar spine are suspend at the end of expiration
In the AP oblique projection, RPO position, which of the following are demonstrated: Zygapophyseal joints of the side closest to the IR (right side)
Would it be possible to provide an optimal image of an AP axial of the sacrum and coccyx using one exposure No
When imaging the body to see the right sacroilac joint, you would rotate the patient __________ degrees toward the patient's ___________ side. 25-30, left
During radiography for scoliosis, using the Frank method, 2, 14x17" cassettes are placed in a 14x34 inch plate. More commonly, what takes place during processing in order to have one resulting image displayed on the computer monitor An image stitching tool is used in the processing of the 2 image plates to make it one image of the whole spine
The patient is lying on the back with the IR against the left side. The CR is horizontal and parallel to the floor entering the right side and exiting the left. What position is this dorsal decubitus
Which radiographic projection is produced when the CR passes from the posterior aspect of the body to the anterior PA
In what type of radiographic projection is the CR directed toward the outer margin of a curved body surface tangential
The term for movement of a body toward the central axis of the body or body part is adduction
Which landmark corresponds with the 5th cervical vertebrae thyroid cartilage, laryngeal prominence, adams apple
Which landmark corresponds with the 3rd thoracic vertebrae hyoid bone
Which landmark corresponds with the 10th thoracic vertebrae xiphoid process
Which vertebrae mark the anterior superior iliac spine S1, S2
Which body habitus is characterized by a long shallow thorax and frail build asthenic
what is the term for the projection in which the CR angled longitudinally to the long axis of the body axial
what are the 5 classifications of bones flat, irregular, sesamoid, long, short
What structures are located in the thoracic cavity pleural membranes, lungs, trachea, esophagus, pericardium, heart, great vessels
A hole in a bone for transmission of blood vessels and nerves is termed foramen
What is the name of the position in which the patient is erect and leaning backward so only the shoulders are in contact with the IR lordotic
Which 2 technical positions must be met in a decubitus position Patient is recumbent and CR is horizontal and parallel to the floor
Describe a displaced fracture bones are not in anatomical alignment
Describe a spiral fracture bones are broken at a angle
Describe a compound fracture bones project thru the skin
A supine position with the hips and knees flexed and the thighs abducted is called lithotomy
The lining of the medullary cavity is called endosteum
Which term defines towards the head of the body cephalad
Which radiographic position is being performed w/the patient recumbent and facing the xray tube with the left side of the body turned 15 degrees toward the IR LPO
What is the specific name of the projection in which the CR passes thru the medial aspect of the knee and exits thru the lateral mediolateral
Which term describes the body part as seen by the IR view
In which quadrant of the abdomen is the stomach located Left upper quadrant
The 2 flat-like superior surfaces of the tibia are called the tibial plateaus
The tibial plateaus slope posteriorly 10-20 degrees
On the anterior surface of the tibia is a prominent process called the tibial tuberosity
Posteriorly, the femoral condyles are separated by a deep depression called the intercondylar fossa
When the femur is vertical, the medial condyle is lower than the lateral condyle by how many degrees different? 5-7
What is the small bump on the anterior distal surface of the tibia anterior tubercle
The circular fibrocartilage disks or pads that lie on the tibial plateaus are called the menisci
How many bones are in the foot 26
How many phalanges are in the foot 14
The superior surface of the foot is termed dorsal surface
The inferior aspect of the foot is termed plantar surface
How many tarsal bones are in the foot 7
The largest and strongest tarsal bone is the calcaneous
The 2nd largest tarsal bone and the one that occupies the highest position in the foot is talus
The largest and strongest bone in the body is the femur
The pointed tip of the patella is called the apex
The pointed process at the distal end of the fibula is called lateral malleolus
The rounded bone part distal and medial on the femur is called medial condyle
The name of the very small round bones located on the plantar surface of the foot, beneath the first metatarsophalangeal joint are the sesamoids
What forms the ankle mortise lateral malleolus of the fibula, medial malleolus of the tibia, inferior surface of the tibia
For an AP projection of the toes, the CR is directed to 3rd metatarsophalangeal joint
The CR is directed to __________ for an AP or AP axial projection of the foot the base of the 3rd metatarsal
The most commonly performed oblique projection of the foot is AP oblique in medial rotation
For an AP oblique projection of the foot in either medial or lateral rotation, the plantar surface of the foot should from an angle of ____ with the IR 30 degrees
For a lateral projection of the foot, the CR is directed to the base of the 3rd metatarsal
Which lateral projection of the foot is the most commonly performed mediolateral (lateral recumbent position)
Which projections of the foot will best demonstrate the structural status of the longitudinal arch lateral(lateromedial) weight-bearing
What is the CR angulation for the axial plantodorsal projection of the calcaneous 40 degrees
The CR angulation for a lateral projection of the calcaneous is 0 degrees
The CR angulation for the AP ankle projection is 0 degrees
For an AP projection of the ankle, the CR must enter the ankle joint, midway between the malleoli
Where will the fibula be located on a properly positioned lateral radiograph of the ankle over the posterior half of the tibia
When the malleoli of the ankle are positioned parallel with the IR, the ankle is in position for which projection AP oblique, 15-20 degree medial rotation for the ankle mortise
The medial and lateral oblique projections of the ankle require the leg and foot to be rotated how many degrees 45 degrees
What is the CR angle for an AP projection of the leg 0 degrees
What is the position of the femoral condyles when the leg is properly positioned for an AP projection parallel to the IR
Where is the CR directed for an AP projection of the knee .5" below the apex
When the ASIS to tabletop measurement btwn 19 and 24 cm, the CR angulation for an AP knee 0 degrees
When the ASIS to tabletop measurement is greater than 24 cm, the CR angulation is 5 degrees cephalad
How much should the leg be flexed for a lateral projection of the knee 20-30 degrees
The CR angulation for a lateral projection of the knee is 5-7 degrees cephalad
Which projection of the knee best demonstrates the narrowing of a joint space variable, depending on the ASIS/tabletop distance
For an AP oblique projection of the knee, the limb is rotated 45 degrees
What is demonstrated on an AP oblique of the knee in medial rotation tibiofibular articulation
What methods are used to demonstrate the intercondylar fossa Holmblad, Camp-coventry
How is the CR directed for the tangential (Settagast method)projection of the patella thru the patellofemoral joint space
The patient in a prone recumbent position and CR angled 40 degrees caudad is which method Camp-Coventry (intercondylar fossa)
How much is the knee flexed for a lateral projection of the patella 5-10 degrees
What is the CR angle for an AP projection of the femur 0 degrees
The superior portion of the calcaneous contains a groove called the calcaneal sulcus. The inferior portion of the talus contains a matching groove called the sulcus tali. These two sulci form the sinus tarsi
On which aspect of the foot does the cuboid lie lateral
The organ of the respiratory system which is also part of the digestive system is the pharynx
The structure which closes off the nasopharynx during the act of swallowing is the epiglottis
Which term describes the bifurcation of the trachea carina
The depression of the medial aspect of each lung where the primary bronchus, pulmonary vessels, nerves enter and leave the lung is termed hilum
Which fissure is found only in the right lung horizontal
The left lateral decubitus film of the chest is done in order to best demonstrate fluid in the left lung, air in the right lung
What projection can be taken to demonstrate a lesion under the left clavicle AP axial, apical lordotic
What are the reasons for using a high kVP for chest radiographs the chest is high subject contrast, to penetrate the heart and mediastinum
What action will remove the base of the skull from the exposure field on a PA chest radiograph lower chin
A patient in the ICU needs an AP supine portable chest xray. How can you minimize heart magnification increase the SID as much as possible
What additional image (to PA and lateral) would best demonstrate a pleural effusion of the right lung right lateral decubitus
When doing a lateral chest the central ray is directed to T7, inferior angle of scapulae
When the correct degree of body/CR angulation has been used on the lordotic chest projection, the image will demonstrate the clavicle projected above the lungs except at the medial ends
What should be demonstrated on a properly positioned PA chest medial ends of clavicle equidistant from the spine, approx. 2" of the lung seen above the clavicles
If the patient cannot achieve the lordotic position, the patient may be placed supine with the CR angled 20 degrees cephalad
The front of the body is referred to as ventral
The gas bubble that appears just below the diaphragm on upright PA chest is located in the fundus of the stomach
Where is the esophagus situated in relationship to the trachea posterior
For AP oblique projection of the chest, the side of interest is generally the side closest to the IR
Describe the position of the thymus gland in the anterior neck
In which direction does the diaphragm move on inspiration down
How many sets of posterior ribs should be shown above the diaphragm on a PA chest on deep inspiration 10
The left lung has ____ lobes 2
What are the routine positions/projections for chest PA and lateral
Why are the shoulders rotated forward when radiographing the PA chest to remove the scapulae from the lung field
What is the name of the double walled serous membrane sac that encloses the lung pleura
What is the most optimal position of the patient for exams of the heart and lungs upright
Why is the left lateral chest position most commonly used for lateral radiographs of the chest patient's heart is closer to the IR
The presence of gas or air in the pleural cavity is termed pneumothorax
What exposure technique is used to penetrate all of the thoracic anatomy high kVp
What structure of the left lung corresponds in position to the right middle lobe lingula
Where are the hands placed for a PA projection of the chest back of the hands on hips
What is the CR angle for a PA chest radiograph perpendicular
Which plane must be accurately parallel with the IR to prevent distortion of the thoracic structures during a PA chest radiograph coronal plane
How many degrees of body rotation are required for routine AP/PA oblique chest radiography 45
For the PA oblique projections of the chest, the side of interest is generally the side farthest from the IR
The AP/RPO projection of the chest corresponds to and essentially produces the same image as the PA/LAO
What pathological condition is best demonstrated with lateral decubitus positions of the chest air or fluid levels
Which position of the chest requires the patient to be prone with the IR placed vertically against the patients right side and a horizontal CR directed to the center of the IR ventral decubitus
How long should the patient remain in position before making the exposure when performing a lateral or dorsal decubitus 5 minutes
Tor F: The left bronchus is shorter than the right bronchus false
T or F: The left bronchus is smaller in diameter than the right bronchus true
T or F: The left lung has 2 lobes true
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion within the alveoli
The smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree is the terminal bronchial
Which lung has an oblique fissure both lungs
Which structure separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity diaphragm
Which term defines lung disease resulting from inhalation of industrial substances pneumoconiosis
The hand consists of how many bones 27
How many phalanges are in the hand 14
At the lateral (thumb) side of the hand, the digit is called the first digit
The palm of the hand is formed by 5 metacarpals
The first bone located on the proximal row and lateral side of the wrist is called the scaphoid
Which is the largest carpal bone capitate
The forearm consists of which bones radius and ulna
The proximal ulna has which 2 processes olecranon(superior) and coronoid (inferior)
The carpal bones articulate with which bones radius
What passes thru the carpal tunnel median nerve
The head of the radius articulates on the medial side with the radial notch
The patient position most commonly used to perform a radiograph of a finger is sitting at the end of the table
For a PA projection of the 2nd digit the CR is directed to the proximal interphalangeal joint
The most common oblique projection of the second thru 5th digit is PA with lateral rotation
How many degrees is the hand rotated for a PA oblique projection of the digit 45
For a PA oblique projection of the thumb the hand is placed prone
For a PA projection of the hand the CR is directed to the 3rd metacarpophalangeal joint
Flexing the finger for a PA projection of the wrist causes what placement of the carpal bones closer to the IR
For a lateral projection of the hand the CR is directed to the 2nd digit metacarpophalangeal joint
The CR for a PA projection of the wrist is directed to the midcarpal area
Which projection best demonstrates the carpal interspaces AP
What is the primary projection used to demonstrate anterior or posterior displacement of fractures of the hand or wrist lateral
Which projections clearly demonstrate the scaphoid PA in ulnar flexion, PA oblique in lateral rotation, PA axial (Stecher method)
For the PA projection of the wrist in ulnar flexion the CR is directed to the scaphoid
The IR must be elevated how many degrees for the PA axial projection of the wrist 20 degrees
What method is used to demonstrate the carpal canal Gaynor Hart (tangential)
The CR angulation for the tangential projection (inferosuperior) of demonstrating the carpal canal is 25-30 degrees
For the AP projection of the forearm, the hand is supinated
Which joints should be clearly demonstrated on the AP projection of the forearm wrist and elbow
For the lateral projection of the forearm the elbow should be flexed 90 degrees
For the AP projection of the elbow, the humeral epicondyles are parallel to the IR
For the AP projection of the elbow, the hand is supinated
For an AP oblique projection of the elbow with medial rotation what would be free of superimposition coronoid process
Which projection best demonstrates the olecranon process within the olecranon fossa AP oblique medial rotation
What is demonstrated free of superimposition on an AP oblique projection of the elbow in lateral rotation radial head and neck
If a patient unable to extend the forearm for an AP projection of the elbow, how many projections are necessary to avoid distortion of the joint 2
Which position of the hand will place the epicondyles parallel with the plane of the IR supine
Where is the CR directed for an AP projection of the humerus midpoint of the humerus
What is shown in profile on an AP projection of the humerus greater tubercle
What breathing technique should be used for an AP projection of the humerus suspended respiration
The shallow depression located on the anterior side of the distal humerus receives what bone part when the elbow is flexed coronoid process
an adult is considered to be hypertensive if the systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure are consistently higher than 140/90
a patient may be considered to have tachycardia if their pulse rate is higher than 100 bpm
the source of radiation in an xray tube (the anode) shall not be closer than 12" from the patient
the radiographic technique that will produce the lowest patient dose is high kVp, low mAs
which is shown in profile on an AP projection of the humerus? greater tubercle
what are the essential projections of the calcaneous axial plantodorsal, lateral, mediolateral
when the maleoli of the ankle are positioned parallel with the IR, the ankle is in position for which projection? ap oblique, 15-20 degree medial rotation for the ankle mortise
when the maleoli of the ankle are positioned parallel with the IR, the ankle is in position for which projection? knee and ankle joint
Where should the CR be projected for the PA projection of the patella midpopliteal area
how many degrees of angulation are required to open the IP joint spaces of the toes on an AP projection? 10 degrees
when the fisk modification is used for the tangential projection of the intertubercular groove, the patient is standing
what are the advantages of using an SID of 72’ for chest radiography? decreased magnification of the sternum, sharper outlines of the delicate lung structures
what are the advantages of using double contrast technique for examination of the stomach? small lesions are not obscured, the mucosal lining of the stomach can be more clearly visualized
the degree of body rotation for the PA oblique projection of the stomach will depend on the body habitus. The greatest degree of rotation would be used for which body habitus? hypersthenic
which projections taken during a barium enema will demonstrate the rectosigmoid area? PA/AP axial, lateral
expiration projections of the chest are done to best demonstrate pneumothorax
which portion of the image intensifier receives the exit radiation from the patient and converts that into light? input phosphurs
All three bones of the hip fuse at the acetabulum
The broad curved aspect of the ilium ala
What is most posterior than the obturator foramen, acetabulum or pubic symphysis spine of the ischium
Created by: lkdickson