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Electrical Currents

Electrical Currents Glossary Part 1

Acupuncture-like TENS Acupuncture-like TENS =low rate TENS. Long-duration, high-amplitude pulses used to control pain
Anode The positive electrode
Burst mode TENS TENS using burst mode current
Conventional TENS Conventional TENS =high rate TENS. Short duration, low-amplitude pulses used to control pain
Cathode The negative electrode
Charge Charge (Q) is measured in Coulombs (C)One of the basic properties of matter:either electrically neutral= no charge,or negative (-), or postively (+) chargedCharge is equal to current x time. Q =It
Current density The amount of current delivered per unit area
Electrical current The movement or flow of charged particles through a conductor in response to an applied electrical field. Current is noted as I and is measured in amperes (A)
Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) Application of an electrical current directly to muscle to produce a muscle contraction
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) Application of an electrical current to produce muscle contractions during a functional activity. Ex: E-stim of dorisflexion during the swing phase of gait
Galvanotaxis The attraction of cells to an electrical charge
Gate control theory A theory of pain control and modulation that states pain is modulated at the spinal cord level by inhibitory effects of nonnoxious afferent input
Impedance (Z) measured in Ohms. The total frequency -dependent opposition to current flow. Describes the ratio of voltage to current more accurately than resistance because the effects of capacitance and resistance are included
Iontophoresis Therapeutic delivery of ions thru the skin using an electrical current
Low rate TENS Low rate TENS =acupuncture-like TENS.Long duration, hig amplitude pulses used to control pain
Motor point usually over the middle of muscle belly. The spot where e-stim creates the greatest contraction with the least amt of electricity
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) Application of an electrical current to motor nerves --> contractions of the ms they innervate
Ohm's law Voltage equals current x resistance V =IR
Overload principle The greater the load placed on a muscle and the higher the force of contraction --> the stronger the muscle becomes
Phase For pulsed current: the period from when the current starts to flow to when it stops or changes in the other direction
Biphasic pulsed current 2 phases: flows in one direction, switches and flows in other direction (start of 2nd phase) 2nd phase ends when current stops flowing
Polarity Charge of an electrode with positive (anode) or negative (cathode) with a direct or monophasic pulsed current & constantly changing with an alternating or biphasic pulsed current
Pulse In pulsed current, the period when current is flowing in any direction
Resistance (R) measured in Ohms. A material's opposition to the flow of electrical current.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TENS Application of electrical current through the skin to modulate pain
Voltage (V) Voltage =potential difference. measured in volts (V).Force or pressure of electricity; the difference in electrical energy between 2 points --> moves charged particles between these 2 points
Created by: ladylore