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Cell Review Notes

How do you know if something is living? It senses and responds to stimuli, it has cells, it grows and develops while maintaining homeostasis, it uses energy, it has DNA, and it reproduces.
What is the main structure of life? Cells.
What instrument helped scientists discover the structure of life? The Microscope.
Who developed the microscope? Robert Hooke.
Who used the microscope to discover living cells? Anton van Leeuwenhoek.
What is the Cell Theory? All organisms are made of one or more cells. The cell is the basic unit of all living things. All cells come from existing cells.
What is and what does the Cell Membrane do? It is a wall around the cell that protects and controls what materials move in and out of the cell.
What is and what does the Cytoplasm do? It is a gel-like substance that supports the cell's organelles.
What is and what does the Vacuole do? It is a storage sack; it is usually larger in plant cells.
What is and what does the Nucleus do? It is the control center of the cell. The nucleus contains DNA.
What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum and what does it do? It is a folded membrane that moves materials around the cell.
What is the Mitochondria and what does it do? It is the powerhouse of the cell.
What is the Golgi Bodies and what does they do? They package and move proteins to the outside of the cell.
What is the Cell Wall and what does it do? It supports and protects the cell. It is only found in plant cells. It contains cellulose that gives support to the cell.
What is Chloroplasts and what do they do? They are structures in green plant cells that contain chlorophyll ( a green pigment ) which captures light and produces glucose and oxygen.
What are the differences between plant cells and animal cells? Plant cells have a cell wall. Plant cells have chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll. Plant cells are usually square in shape and animal cells are oval or round. Vacuoles are usually large in plants.
How are cells organized? Cells ⇒ Make up tissues ⇒ Make up organs ⇒ Make up organ systems ⇒ Make up the organism.
How is an organism formed? Tissues are a group of cells working together. Organs are groups of tissues working together Organ systems are groups of organs working together. An organism is groups of organ systems working together
What is included in the cell cycle? Interphase, Mitosis, and Cytokineses.
How are more cells formed? Through cell division in one of the two ways: Mitosis or Meiosis.
Mitosis takes place when. . . Cells divide for growth and replacement. The body cell duplicates itself and then divides. The daughter cells are just like the parent cell.
Mitosis in humans is like. . 46 chromosomes→ go through mitosis → end up with 46 chromosomes
What are the phases of Mitosis? Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.
What is Interphase? It is the 'normal' phase the cell starts in.
What is Prophase? It is the first step to mitosis.
What happens during Metaphase? The chromosomes line up in the middle.
What happens during Anaphase? The chromosomes are pulled away from the middle by spindle fibers.
What happens during Telophase? An indentation that shows the beginning of two new cells.
What is Meiosis? Meiosis is the dividing of cells involved in reproduction. The sex cell divides its 46 chromosomes to 23, and then it splits. A sperm or egg cell is produced.
What is Meiosis like in humans? 46 chromosomes→ go through meiosis → end up with 23 chromosomes.
What is DNA? DNA is matter that carries the instruction code for each cell. A DNA molecule is a double stranded, twisted ladder, pairing up at the base.
What four nucleic acids are DNA made of? Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine.
What is cell transport? Cell transport is the moving of materials in and out of cells. All cells try to reach equilibrium (a balance). Cells often use two ways to move materials: diffusion and osmosis.
What is Diffusion? It is the passive transport of materials from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.
What is Osmosis? It is the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane. Semi-permeable means that some molecules can pass through the membrane and other molecules cannot.
How do organisms reproduce? Sexual or Asexual Reproduction.
What does Sexual Reproduction require? Requires two parents Produces offspring that are not exactly like their parents.
What does Asexual Reproduction require? A single parent produces the offspring. The offspring are exactly like the parent. Most single celled organisms reproduce this way. Binary fission takes place when one organism splits into two organisms; 1→2.
What is reproduction in plants called? Pollination.
What is photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is the process in which plants use light energy to produce their own food. Photosynthesis takes place only in green plants.
What is the chemical reaction for photosynthesis? 6CO2 + 6H2O + light + chlorophyll → C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is respiration? Respiration is the process by which an organism breaks down glucose to release carbon dioxide, plus water, and energy.
What is the chemical reaction for respiration? C6H12O6 + O2 → CO2 + H2O
What is transpiration? Transpiration is the loss of water through the stomata {tiny openings(pores)} on the underside of a leaf.
How are organisms classified? Based on similar characteristics.
How do scientists classify living things? The Hierarchy Chart.
In what order is the classification of living things? Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
What are the Domains? Archea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.
What are the Kingdoms? Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals.
What is Ecology? Ecology is the study of the environment?
What factors effect the environment? Abiotic and Biotic Factors.
What are Abiotic Factors? Non-living, physical features of the environment.
What are Biotic Factors? Living organisms in the environment.
How do living things get energy? The sun is the original source of energy on the earth and powers photosynthesis for plants to grow.
What is a food chain? A food chain shows how the energu passes from one organism to another.
What is a food web? A food web is a series of overlapping food chains.
What is the energy pyramid? An energy pyramid shows how the energy from the sun is transferred to plants and from plans to animals.
What is Symbiosis? Symbiosis is any close relationship between two or more different species.
What is Mutualism? In which both species benefit, for example a butterfly and a flower.
What is Colonialism? In which one benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed; for example , an egret follows a cow to feed on insects stirred up as the cow eats.
What is Parasitism? In which one benefits and one is harmed.
What is a niche? Something an animal does.
What is a parasite? Something that lives on a body or host.
What is a host? Something that is infected by a parasite.
What is a Biome? A large region of land with a distinct climate and certain types of plants and animals.
What is a Tundra? A Tundra is a cold, dry, treeless region with less than 25 cm of precipitation a year.
What is a Taiga? A Taiga i sa cold region of cone-bearing trees, long and cold winters; it has 30-40 cm of precipitation per year.
What is a Deciduous? A Deciduous is a forest that has four seasons; it has 75-150 cm of precipitation per year.
What is a Rain Forest? A Raid Forest has lush green plants, 150 cm of precipitation per year; it has the greatest variety of
What is a Dessert? A Dessert has little plant life; it has less than 10 cm of precipitation per year.
What are the major cycles that are beneficial to life? The Water Cycle, The Nitrogen Cycle, and the Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Cycle.
What is the Water Cycle? When Photosynthesis transports and transpiration return water vapor to the atmosphere. In the atmosphere the winds carry water vapor around. The water vapor condenses and clouds are formed. Precipitation falls from the clouds and the cycle starts all over
What is the Nitrogen Cycle? When Nitrogen from the atmosphere is transferred to plants and back to the atmosphere.
What is the Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Cycle? When Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen are continuously moved between living things and their environment.
What is Hibernation? Sleeping through the cold months.
What is Migration? Moving from one area to another.
What is Camouflage? The protective coloration an animal or plant uses.
What is Phototropism? Growing towards the light.
What is Dormancy? When plants are sleeping.
What is Heredity? It is what is passed down from parent to child.
What is Genus Segments of DNA, located on the chromosomes that carry instructions for the traits of that organism.
Where are Chromosomes located? In the nucleus of each cell.
What do Genes determine? Traits.
How are genes together? Pairs.
What is a dominant allele? A allele that masks the other allele.
What is a recessive allele? An allele that is masked by another.
What is a hybrid? A heterogeneous carries both a dominant and recessive allele for a trait.
What is a genotype? A genotype is a set of alleles an organism has a trait, (GG, Gg, or gg)
What is a phenotype? The appearance of a trait.
Created by: 3119244