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Pharmacokinetic Quiz

QuestionAnswer
What is a competitive antagonism, and give examples? receptor antagonist that binds to a receptor. the antagonist will compete with available agonist for receptor binding sides on the same receptor. ex: Naloxone
what is a paradoxical reaction? unexpected excessive or opposite response. Ex: pain caused by a pain relief medication
what is synergy? using two medications each do two different things and do not affect each other. Ex: Valium and Dilaudid
explain role of first pass metabolism? Concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the circulation before the liver. ex: morphine,Demerol,lidocaine
What is the CYP 450 Pathway Enzyme with a wavelength of 450 nanometers. Large # of enzymes play a major role in biotransformation of drugs
What is Second messenger cAMP? intracelluar signaling molecules released by the cell to trigger physiological changes such as proliferation,differentiation.Ex: cyclic AMP. Cyclic GMP, inositol triphosphate, diacylalycerol, and calcium.
What is Biotransformation? Takes place in the liver, it is a process of detoxification the end products are metabolites
What is Pharmacokinetic? How the drug is eliminated by the body
What is pharmacodynamics? Drug action at the molecular and whole organismlevel
What is ED50? Effective Dose- Does that will produce 50% of maximal response
What is LD50? Lethal dose, dose that will kill 50% of animal tested on
What is therapeutic index or window? (TI)= LD/ED. The higher the index the better gives estimate of relative safety
What is T1/2 Half life-time for drug level in blood to decrease by 50%
What is Agonist? A drug that stimulates a cell receptor
What is Antagonists? a drug that inhibits the action of an agonist (binds with the receptor site but does not activate them)
What is stacking? The delayed, cumulative effect of repeated doses of a drug
What is piggybacking? putting an IV bag into a main line by another infusion in the line
What is Teratogenic effects? A drug which causes severe congenital defects
What is Bolusing? A drug given in a greater amount than followed by a maintenance dose is given
what is Chelation? A particular way that ions and molecules bind metal ions
What is Invitro? In a human
What is invivo? in glass
What is Drug resistance or tolerance? The resistance of drugs within the body to let the drug do what its suppose to do
What is drug titration? regulating a dose based on a sliding scale of values.
What is Protein binding of drugs in the blood? The ability of proteins to form bonds with other substances
What is Action of water-soluble drugs on receptors? receptors binding to receptors on the surface of the the target cell. The chemical reaction activates enzymes inside the cell.
What is action of lipid soluble drugs on cells? doesn't like water, and cannot move through a cell very easily.
What is the mechanisms of reversal agents or antidotes? the actual process bu which a drug alters a cell or body fluids.
What is a loss of effectiveness through receptor up or down regulation? Chronic stimulation by agonist tends to decrease receptor #of receptor response. the nucleus recognizes that this much stimulation is not normal and pulls receptors into the cell as a protective mechanism to prevent over stimulation.
What is Enzyme stimulation or inhibition Drugs may increase production of enzymes. Ex: bronchodilation,.lipolysis
what are the interactions with neurotransmitters? Change rte of nerve impulse conduction. Ex: Prozac