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who developed PNF Maggie Knott and Herman Kabat
PNF proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, approach that includes methods of promoting or hastening the response of the neuromuscular mechanism through stimulation of the proprocieptors
who expanded on PNF Voss and Meyers
what did knott and kabat use PNF to treat paralysis
the development of PNF relied heavily on recognizing the capability of neuromuscular mechanisms to promote movement
define facilitation the promotion of any natural process, specifically, the effect produced in nerve tissue by the passage of an impulse
define proprioception sensory stimulation that is received from the receptors within the bodies own muscles, tendons and joints
define neuromuscular means this technique applies to nerves and muscles
what are the basic tenets of PNF the body's movements are rotational and that each major body part has two basic diagonal rotational movement patterns, with each diagonal consisting of two antagonistic patterns, one predominantly into flexion and the other into extension
what does PNF patterns allow a series of muscles to contract from their completely lengthened range to their completely shortened range, with rotation being an important consideration.
what is normal timing the typical sequence of muscular activity resulting in coordinated movement
what else can be used to heighten the excitability of the motor neurons to create more activity in the production of volitional movements touch, resistance, pressure, stretch and verbal commands
what is the philosophy of PNF movements must be specific & directed toward a goal, activity is necessary to the best development of coordination, strength,& endurance, & that the stronger body parts strengthen weaker parts through cooperation leading toward a goal of optimum function
how did voss and meyers elaborate purposeful movements are basic to a successful life, they are coordinated and directed toward an ultimate goal. ability, strength & endurance are developed by active participation in fife, and repetition of an activity is important to the learning process
what did neurorehabilitation recognize and prioritize the importance of purposeful movement, goal-directed activity, motor learning, and environmental influences
PNF beevor's axiom the brain knows nothing of individual muscle action, but rather recognizes movement as mass movement patterns
PNF normal functional motor activity musles shorten and lengthen in varying degrees.normal movement depends on a balance between flexors and extensors and between different types of muscle contractions
PNF facilitated movements performed in a diagonal fashion, resembling natural occurring movements seen in sports and work activities, two diagonal patterns of motion for each of the major parts of the body, each pattern has major component of flexion and extension with rotation
two diagonal patterns of motion for each of the major parts of the body head and neck, upper trunk, lower trunk and extremities, each pattern has major component of flexion and extension with rotation ensuring a spiral nature to the motion and integration of both body sides
motor learning requires repetition and the integration of multi sensory information, auditory, visual, tactile and proprioceptive information combine in the learning or relearning of movement
selective irradiation when patterns of facilitation movement are performed against resistance, muscle contraction is induced throughout the muscle and into synergist, by stimulating the stronger muscle groups first, contraction can be induced in the weaker synergistic muscles.
manual stimulation techniques used during the performance of the diagonal movement manual contacts, resistance, stretch, traction, approximation, timing and rhythmic stabilization
why to therapist use manual stimulation to increase muscle activation during the performance of the movement pattern
PNF incorporates motor learning strategies into its application, instruction, quittance, repetition, practice, and feedback
manual contacts pressure is given to the skin over the muscle being facilitated
vision patiend is asked to watch the movement and to participate in giving the movement direction
verbal commands tone of voice and specific commands are used selectively to prepare the patient for movement, direct the movement, and motivate the patient
stretch quick stretch is given to the muscle being facilitated, stretch can be applied at the beginning of the motion or intermittently throughout the ROM to activate or reinforce muscle activation/contraction
traction separation of the joint surfaces to activate joint receptors
approximation compression joint surfaces together, usually done with the body part in a WB position
resistance given to an active contraction, can be graded or maximal, depending on the movement goal
timing selectively used by the therapist to either facilitate motor learning as the patient recognizes the familiarity of a frequently used movement pattern or to emphasize a special portion of the movement pattern
rhythmic stabilization rhythmic, alternating isometric contractions of agonies and antagonist without intermittent relaxation, resistance is carefully graded to achieve co-contraction
goal and benefit of manual contacts utilizes sensory cues to direct the patients attention to the desired movement, pressure activates mechanoreceptors
goal and benefit of vision reinforcement and to offer extrinsic feedback to the patient as he or she learns the movement
goal and benefit of verbal commands tone of voice and specific commands are used selectively to prepare the patient for movement, direct the movement, and motivate the patient/client
goal and benefit of stretch activates the muscle spindle and excites the agonist muscle through activation of the monosynaptic reflex arc
goal and benefit of traction activates proprioceptive joint receptors, theorized to promote movement
goal and benefit of approximation activate proprioceptive joint receptors to promote muscular co-contraction, joint stability, and WB
goal and benefit of resistance increase muscular strength, reinforce a contraction, or induce irradiation of the contraction to synergist
goal and benefit of timing patterns based on typically occurring patterns of normal movement, used in work and sports, an important component of learning and movement pattern
goal and benefit of rhythmic stabalization used to promote WB and holding and improve postural stability, strength, and proximal control
Created by: mloft
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