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Pulmonary Terms (LC)

Pulmonary Terms

TermDefinition
Ventilation Ability to move air in and out of lungs.
Respiration Gas exchange that supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.
Hypoxemia Deficient oxygen in arterial blood caused by respiratory or cardiovascular compromise.
Hypoxia Diminished availability of oxygen to the body tissues.
Hypercapnia Too much carbon dioxide in the blood.
Dyspnea Subjective feeling of shortness of breathe due to hypoxemia or emotional state.
Cyanosis Bluish color or skin/membranes due to decreased oxygen saturation.
Persistent Dry Cough May be caused by a tumor, congestion, or hypertensive airways (allergies).
Productive cough w/purulent sputum May indicate infection.
Productive cough w/o purulent sputum Nonspecific & indicates airway irritation.
Hemoptysis Indicates pathologic condition including infection, inflammation, abscess, tumor, or infection.
Apneustic Gasping inspiration followed by short expirations.
Hypoventilation Common, reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli and increases arterial CO2 levels.
Hyperventilation Abnormal prolonged deep breathing.
Lateral-costal breathing Generalized weakness, Guillian-Barre syndrome, chest flattened anteriorly w/excessive flaring of lower ribs, minimal to no upper chest expansion.
Crackles/Rales Discontinuous, low pitched sounds predominantly heard during inspiration that indicates secretions in the peripheral airways.
Stridor A shrill, harsh sound heard during inspiration in the presence or laryngeal obstruction.
Wheezing High-pitched, continuous whistling sound, usually w/expiration & related to broncho-spasm or other constriction of the airways.
Pneumonia Inflammation of parenchyma of the lungs caused by infectious agent or aspiration (often follows the flu).
Tuberculosis Causes granuloma and necrosis of lung tissue, systemic infectious inflammatory disease of the lungs
COPD Family of lung pathologies that often coexist that limit flow.
Chronic Bronchitis Productive cough greater than 3 months/year for 2 consecutive years.
Emphysema Pathologic accumulation or air in the lungs.
Asthma Reversible obstructive lung disease w/inflammation and increased muscle spasm around airways.
Cystic Fibrosis Inherited genetic disorder causing impermeability of epithelial cells to chloride.
Restrictive Lung Disease Any condition that reduces lung volume and decreases compliance.
Pulmonary Fibrosis Epithelial damage and inflammation leads to progressive scarring in the lungs.
Scleroderma autoimmune connective tissue disorder w/excessive collagen deposition in kidneys and lungs.
Atelectasis Collapse of normally expanded lung tissue involving all or part of lung.
Pulmonary Edema Fluid leaks into alveolar space, decreasing area for gas exchange.
Pulmonary Embolism Lodging of blood clot from DVT in pulmonary artery obstructing blood supply to the lungs.
Pulmonary Hypertension High BP or pulmonary arteries due to narrowing of the pulmonary arterioles or increase of pressure leaving the heart.
Cor Pulmonale Enlargement of right ventricle due to pulmonary hypertension from other disease process (usually emphysema or chronic bronchitis).
Pneumothorax Accumulation of air in the pleural cavity, collapsing the lung on the affected side.
Pleurisy Inflammation of the pleura caused by infection (pneumonia, TB, Flu).
Pleural Effusion Collection of fluid in the pleural space.
Created by: lcox