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Psych 105

Psych 105 - Chapter 12, 14 & 15

QuestionAnswer
Social Psychology Branch of psychology that studies how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of other people and by the social and physical environment
Sense of Self An individual's unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural and psychological experiences; your sense of who you are in relation to other people
Social Cognition The mental processes people use to make sense of their social environments
Social Influence The effects of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior
Person Perception The mental processes we use to form judgments and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of other people
Social Norms The "rules" or expectations for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation
Social Categorization The mental process of categorizing people into groups (or social categories) on the basis of their shared characteristics
Explicit Cognition Deliberate, conscious mental processes involved in perceptions, judgments, decisions and reasoning
Implicit Cognition Automatic, non-conscious mental processes that influence perceptions, judgments, decisions and reasoning
Implicit Personality Theory A network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits and behaviors
Attribution The mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior including one's own. Also refers to the explanation made for a particular behavior
Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to attribute the behavior of other to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors; an attributional bias that is common in individualistic cultures
Blaming the Victim The tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it
Hindsight Bias The tendency to overestimate one's ability to have foreseen or predicted the outcome of an event
Just-World Hypothesis The assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Self-Serving Bias The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes
Attitude A learned tendency to evaluate some object, person or issue in a particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative or ambivalent
Cognitive Dissonance An unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal (dissonance) that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions (cognitions) are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that attitudes and behavior are in conflict
Prejudice A negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group
Stereotype A cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group
In-Group A social group to which one belongs
Out-Group A social group to which one does not belong
Out-Group Homogeneity Effect The tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another
In-Group Bias The tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably
Ethnocentrism The belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others and the related tendency to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures
Implicit Attitudes Preferences and biases toward particular groups that are automatic, spontaneous, unintentional and often unconscious; measured with the Implicit Associations Test (IAT)
Conformity Adjusting your opinions, judgments or behavior so that it matches the opinions, judgments or behavior of other people, or the norms of a social group or situation
Normative Social Influence Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval
Informational Social Influence Behavior that is motivated by the desire to be correct
Obedience The performance of a behavior in response to a direct command
Altruism Helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit
Prosocial Behavior Any behavior that helps another, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless
Bystander Effect A phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress
Diffusion of Responsibility A phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that an individual will help someone is distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers
Social Loafing The tendency to expend less effort on a task when it is a group effort
Social Facilitation The tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance
Deindividuation The reduction of self-awareness and inhibitions that can occur when a person is a part of a group whose members feel anonymous
Persuasion The deliberate attempt to influence the attitudes or behavior of another person in a situation in which that person has some freedom of choice
Psychopathology The scientific study of the origins, symptoms and development of psychological disorders
Psychological Disorder or Mental Disorder A pattern of behavioral and psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of life or both
DSM-5 Abbreviation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition the book published by the American Psychiatric Association that describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for different psychological disorders
Anxiety An unpleasant emotional state characterized by physical arousal and feelings of tension, apprehension and worry
Anxiety Disorders A category of psychological disorders in which extreme anxiety is the main diagnostic feature and causes significant disruptions in the person's cognitive, behavioral or interpersonal functioning
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) An anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, global, and persistent symptoms of anxiety; also called free-floating anxiety; Lasts at least 6 months
Panic Attack A sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates in intensity
Panic Disorder An anxiety disorder in which the person experiences frequent and unexpected panic attacks
Agoraphobia An anxiety disorder involving extreme fear of experiencing a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms in a public situation where escape in impossible and help in unavailable
Phobia A persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, situation, or activity
Specific Phobia An excessive, intense and irrational fear of a specific object, situation, or activity that is actively avoided or endured with marked anxiety
Social Anxiety Disorder An anxiety disorder involving the extreme and irrational fear of being embarrassed, judged or scrutinized by others in social situations
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) A disorder triggered by exposure to a highly traumatic event which results in recurrent, involuntary and intrusive memories of the event; avoidance of stimuli and situations associated with the event; negative changes in thoughts, moods, and emotions;
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Disorder characterized by the presence of intrusive, repetitive and unwanted thoughts(obsessions) and repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform (compulsions)
Obsessions Repeated, intrusive and uncontrollable irrational thoughts or mental images that cause extreme anxiety and distress
Compulsions Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels driven to perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety and distress or to prevent a dreaded event or situation
Major Depressive Disorder A disorder characterized by extreme and persistent feelings of despondency, worthlessness, and hopelessness causing impaired emotional, cognitive, behavioral and physical functioning
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) A disorder in which episodes of depression typically occur during the fall and winter and subside during the spring and summer
Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) A disorder involving chronic, low-grade feelings of depression that produce subjective discomfort but do not seriously impair the ability to function
Bipolar Disorder A disorder involving periods of incapacitating depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement; formally called manic depression
Manic Disorder A sudden, rapidly escalating emotional state characterized by extreme euphoria, excitement, physical energy and rapid thoughts and speech
Cyclothymic Disorder A disorder characterized by moderate but frequent mood swings that are not severe enough to qualify as bipolar disorder
Eating Disorder A category of mental disorders characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior
Anorexia Nervosa An eating disorder characterized by excessive weight loss, an irrational fear of gaining weight, and distorted body self-perception
Bulimia Nervosa An eating disorder characterized by binges of extreme overeating followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, or other inappropriate methods to purge the excessive food and prevent weight gain
Personality Disorder Inflexible, maladaptive patterns of thoughts, emotions, behavior, and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time and across situations, and the deviate from the expectations of the individual's culture
Paranoid Personality Disorder A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of the motives of others without sufficient basis
Antisocial Personality Disorder A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregarding and violating the rights of others; such individuals are also often referred to as psychopaths or sociopaths
Borderline Personality Disorder A personality disorder characterized by instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions and marked impulsivity
Dissociative Experience A break or disruption in consciousness during which awareness, memory and personal identity become separated or divided
Dissociative Disorders A category of psychological disorders in which extreme and frequent disruptions of awareness, memory and personal identity impair the ability to function
Dissociative Amnesia A dissociative disorder involving the partial or total inability to recall important personal information
Dissociative Fugue A type of dissociative amnesia involving sudden and unexpected travel away from home, extensive amnesia and identity confusion
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) A dissociative disorder involving extensive memory disruptions along with the presence of two or more distinct identities, or "personalities"; formerly called multiple personality disorder
Schizophrenia A psychological disorder in which the ability to function is impaired by severely distorted beliefs, perceptions and thought processes
Positive Symptoms In schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect excesses or distortions of normal functioning, including delusions, hallucinations and disorganized thoughts and behavior
Negative Symptoms In schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect defects or deficits in normal functioning, including flat affect, alogia and avolition
Delusion A falsely held belief that persists despite compelling contradictory evidence
Hallucinations A false or distorted perception that seems vividly real to the person experiencing it
Dopamine Hypothesis The view that schizophrenia is related to and may be caused by excessive activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain
Psychotherapy The treatment of emotional, behavioral and interpersonal problems through the use of psychological techniques designed to encourage understanding of problems and modify troubling feelings, behaviors or relationships
Biomedical Therapies The use of medications, electroconvulsive therapy or other medical treatments to treat the symptoms associated with psychological disorders; aimed to reduce symptoms, not cure them
Psychoanalysis A type of psychotherapy originated by Sigmund Freud in which free association, dream interpretation and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties and internal conflicts
Free Association A technique used in psychoanalysis in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings and mental images as they come to mind, as a way of revealing unconscious thoughts and emotions
Resistance In psychoanalysis, the patient's unconscious attempts to block the revelation of repressed memories and conflicts
Dream interpretation A technique used in psychoanalysis in which the content of dreams in analyzed for disguised or symbolic wishes, meanings and motivations
Interpretation A technique used in psychoanalysis in which the psychoanalyst offers a carefully timed explanation of the patient's dreams, free associations or behaviors to facilitate the recognition of unconscious conflicts or motivations
Transference In psychoanalysis, the process by which emotions and desires originally associated with a significant person in the patient's life, such as a parent, are unconsciously transferred onto he psychoanalyst
Short-Term Dynamic Therapies Type of psychotherapy that is based on psychoanalytic theory but differs in that it is typically time-limited, has specific goals, and involves an active, rather than neutral, role for the therapist
Interpersonal therapy (IPT) A brief, psychodynamic psychotherapy that focuses on current relationships and is based on the assumption that symptoms are caused and maintained by interpersonal problems
Client-Centered Therapy A type of psychotherapy developed by humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers in which the therapist is nondirective and reflective, and the client directs the focus of each therapy session; also called person-centered therapy
Behavior Therapy A type of psychotherapy that focuses on directly changing maladaptive behavior patterns by using basic learning principles and techniques; also called behavior modification
Counterconditioning A behavior therapy technique based on classical conditioning that involves modifying behavior by conditioning a new response that is incompatible with a previously learned response
Systematic Desensitization A type of behavior therapy in which phobic responses are reduced by pairing relaxation with a series of mental images or real-life situations that the person finds progressively more fear-provoking; based on the principle of counterconditioning
Aversive Conditioning A relatively ineffective type of behavior therapy that involves repeatedly pairing an aversive stimulus with the occurrence of undesirable behaviors or thoughts
Token Economy A form of behavior therapy in which the therapeutic environment is structured to reward desired behaviors with tokens or points that may eventually be exchanged for tangible rewards
Cognitive Therapies A group of psychotherapies based on the assumption that psychological problems are due to illogical patterns of thinking; treatment techniques focus on recognition and altering these unhealthy thinking patterns
Rational-Emotional Therapy (RET) A type of cognitive therapy, developed by psychologist Albert Ellis, that focuses on changing the client's irrational beliefs; aimed to change common thinking patterns
Cognitive Therapy (CT) Therapy developed by Aaron T. Beck that focuses on changing the client's unrealistic, irrational & maladaptive beliefs
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Therapy that integrates cognitive and behavioral techniques and that is based on the assumption that thoughts, moods, and behaviors are interrelated
Group Therapy A form of psychotherapy that involves one or more therapists working simultaneously with a small group of clients
Family Therapy A form of psychotherapy that is based on the assumption that the family is a system and that treats the family as a unit
Eclecticism The pragmatic and integrated use of techniques from different psychotherapies
Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in which the client holds vivid mental image of a troubling event/situation which rapidly moving his/her eyes back and forth in response to the therapist's waving finger or while the therapist administers some other form of bilateral stimulation
Exposure Therapy Behavioral therapy for phobias, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or related anxiety disorders in which the person is repeatedly exposed to the disturbing object or situation under controlled conditions
Psychotropic Medications Drugs that alter mental functions, alleviate psychological symptoms, and are used to treat psychological or mental disorders
Antipsychotic Medications Prescription drugs that are used to reduce psychotic symptoms; frequently used in the treatment of schizophrenia; also called neuroleptics
Atypical Antipsychotic Medications Newer antipsychotic medications that, in contrast to the early antipsychotic drugs, block dopamine receptors in brain regions associated with psychotic symptoms rather than more globally throughout the brain, resulting in fewer side effects
Antianxiety Medications Prescription drugs that are used to alleviate the symptoms of anxiety
Lithium A naturally occurring substance that is used in the treatment of bipolar disorder
Antidepressant Medications Prescription drugs that are used to reduced the symptoms associated with major depressive disorder
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Class of antidepressant medications that increase the availability of serotonin in the brain and cause fewer side effects that earlier anitdepressants; they include Prozac, Paxil and Zoloft
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) A biomedical therapy used primarily in the treatment of major depressive disorder that involves electrically inducing a brief brain seizure; also called electroshock therapy; very effective in short term; treatment resistant (RT) patients
What does your first impression of someone tell you? (5 characteristics) And in how much time? Attractiveness, competence, aggressiveness, trustworthy & likeability. In one tenth (1/10th) of a second.
What 4 things explain the ATTRIBUTION behavior Blaming the victim, hindsight bias, self-serving bias, self effacing bias and fundamental attribution error
WSU Counseling Services address 280 Lighty Student Services Building - 509-335-4511
The 4 D's Deviance, Dysfunction, Distress & Danger
Examples of conformity studies Elevator, picture with 3 lines
How does attractiveness alter personal perception They are perceived to be smarter, happier, have a better job, better marriage, be better adjusted and have an overall better life
3 characteristics of anxiety disorder Irrational, uncontrollable & disruptive
Obsession vs. Compulsion Obsessions are thoughts that cause anxiety & compulsions are repetitive behaviors that cause anxiety
4 main types of specific phobias Situational (airplace), Natural features (lightening), Injury (needles), Animal/Insects (snakes)
Situations where PTSD is more likely to occur (susceptibility) Wars, fires, floods - Family history, multiple traumas, magnitude of trauma
Psychotherapy vs. Biomedical Therapy (goals/treatment) Psychotherapy = counseling - Biomedical = prescription medication
Psychodynamic vs. Humanistic Approach (goals/treatment) Psychodynamic = dream analysis, interpretation (Goal=recognize work through & resolve)- Humanistic = nondirective, unconditional understanding (Goal= develop self-awareness)
How does lithium work and what does it work for Stabilizes glutamate release and is used for bipolar (manic & depressive)
Advantages/Disadvantages of Antidepressants Helps with depression & anxiety; side effects= high BP, weight gain, dry mouth, suicide ideas, sexual dysfunction
4 characteristics of anorexia 1) Refusal to maintain a normal body weight, 2) Fear of gaining weight, 3) Body dismorphic disorder & 4) Denial
3 characteristics of bulimia 1) Episodes of binge eating, 2) Inability to stop or control eating behavior & 3) Episodes of purging
4 types of schizophrenia 1) Paranoid, 2) Catatonic, 3) Disorganized & 4) Undifferentiated
Phobia vs. Fear Fear is an emotional response and phobia is the same, with the addition of extreme anxiety
Examples of antianxiety (anxiolytics) Benzodiazepines = Xanax, Valium
Prozac or Paxil Type of antidepressants -1
Zoloft or Celexa Type of antidepressants -2
Group Therapy Advantages Cost effective, added support & encouragement, observable interactions w/ others, practical advice & security/comfort
About how likely is it that an individual will develop a psychological disorder in his/her lifetime About 50%
Kessler said what percentage of people with symptoms of a mental disorder received no treatment in the last year 59%
What percentage of people will experience major depression in a lifetime 15%
Percentage of women that have eating disorders 90-95%
The 3 clusters Odd, dramatic & anxious
The 3 clusters - Odd = which disorder Paranoid, schizoid & schizotypal
The 3 clusters - Dramatic = which disorder Anti-social, borderline, histrionic & narcissistic
The 3 clusters - Anxious - which disorder Avoidant, dependant & obsessive-compulsive
The humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers
The psychodynamic psychologist Sigmund Freud
Best resolution/helper for depression Exercise
Concerns with ECT (ElectroConvulsive Therapy) Extensive amnesia, disturbances in language, relapse is common after 4 months, has to be done 2-3 times a week for up to 7 weeks
DBS Deep Brain Stimulation
What does DBS (Deep Brain Stimulation) help Parkinson's, OCD, depression, epilepsy, tourettes, chronic pain
Area 25 Part of brain that is most stimulated (by DBS)
Advantages/Disadvantages of DBS (Deep Brain Stimulation) A = instant results & D = expensive & brain surgery
ECT Electoconvulsive Therapy
PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
DID Dissociative Identity Disorder
EMDR Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing
CBT Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
CT Cognitive Therapy
RET Rational-Emotional Therapy
IPT Interpersonal therapy
SAD Seasonal Affective Disorder
OCD Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
GAD Generalized Anxiety Disorder
DSM-5 Diagnostic Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition
Neurotransmitter DA Dopamine
Neurotransmitter 5-HT Serotonine
TR Treatment Resistant
If someone falls right in front of you and you immediately think 'what an idiot', this would be Fundamental Attribution Error
Buyers remorse would be an example of Cognitive Dissonance
If you went to the Post Office, you wouldn't cut to the beginning of the line, this would be Social Norms
Someone drops coffee right in front of you and you immediately think 'well if he wasn't walking so fast', this would be Blaming The Victim
Someone falls in front of you and you immediately say 'I knew that was going to happen', this would be Hindsight Bias
Anxiety vs. Anxiety Disorder Anxiety is a normal, adaptive trait, where as Anxiety Disorder is maladaptive, disruptive & inappropriate
Panic Attack vs. Panic Disorder PA= you feel a loss of control, you get anxious and your heart rate increases, PD= Having frequent panic attacks
Criticisms with DSM-5 Arbitrary cut off and it does not take cultural differences in to account
A rotten kid grows up to be a lying manipulative adult, this would be Antisocial Personality Disorder
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia Slow & monotonous speech
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia Hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech & behavior
If a person will go for a day or two with lots of energy, euphoria and very little sleep, this would be Manic Episodes
Manic episodes that last for a week or more are symptoms of Bipolar Disorder
Your therapist is telling you that your fear is silly, that you need to let it go & is almost argumentative with you, this would be Rational Emotion Therapy
Your therapist exposes you to what your fear is snakes (first you see a picture, then you see one in person, then you touch one) this would be Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Biomedical therapy for Bipolar Lithium
Depression that lasts longer than 6 months Major Depression
If you really don't care how a situation will make another person feel or how they will view it, you would have Borderline Personality
Experiment where they try to see how far a person will go to obey the instructions even if it means hurting the "learner" Milgram Experiment
1 in 3 people take this medication Antidepressants
There is a tree-hugger hugging a tree, what is "affective" in this example Having a warm & fuzzy feeling about trees
There is a tree-hugger hugging a tree, what is "cognitive" in this example Saying I love trees
There is a tree-hugger hugging a tree, what is "behavioral" in this example Hugging the tree
Seeing a tree-hugger litter papers on the ground would be Cognitive Dissonance (when 2 feelings collide)
Stereotype vs. Prejudice Stereotype is natural thinking, Prejudice is when that natural thinking causes harm to a person or group
Self-Effacing Bias Tending to make oneself, one's actions, etc, inconspicuous, esp because of humility or timidity; modest
Created by: bjcj1001