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# Physical Science

### Final Exam vocabulary

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Weight | measure of the pull of gravity on an object |

Gravity | a force of attraction between two objects |

Extrapolate | extend |

Scalar quantity | has magnitude but no direction |

Elastic collision | does go back to original shape, does bounce back |

Directly proportional | on a graph line where x and y data increases at equal rates |

Average speed | total distance divided by the total time passed |

Slope | indicates the steepness of a line |

Independent variable | variable controlled by the scientist |

Period | time in seconds it takes to complete 1 cycle. |

Density | amount of mass in a given volume |

Dependent variable | variable affected by the independent variable; what you measure |

Friction | a force that opposes the motion of one surface past another |

Pendulum | a system that consists of a free swinging arm attached to the pivot at one end and the bob weight at the other |

Effective length | the length of the pendulum measured from pivot point to center of bob weight |

Acceleration formula | formula for acceleration where an initial velocity and the final velocity are given |

Force vector | uses the arrow to show direction and magnitude of a force |

Air resistance | the force that opposes the motion of objects in the atmosphere |

Vector quantity | has both magnitude and direction |

Frequency | number of cycles a pendulum makes in one minute |

Momentum | the mass time the velocity of an object |

Speed | distance traveled per unit of time |

Motion | a change in position relative to fixed objects |

Cycle | one swing back and forth |

Inertia | the tendency of any object to oppose a change in motion |

Inelastic collision | does not go back to its original shape' does not bounce back |

Pivot point | part of a pendulum that is attached |

Bob weight | weight used at the free end of the pendulum |

Velocity | speed in a particular direction |

Distance time graph | shows the relationship between distance and time |

Inversely proportional | on a graph line where x data increases, the y data decreases at a steady rate |

Distance | length between any two points in the path of an object |

Swing | half a cycle |

Data table | place to store data |

Magnitude | size of something |

Newton | amount of force needed to give 1 kg mass an acceleration of 1 m/s/s |

Ordered pairs | data recorded in the data table then plotted on a graph |

Scale | identifies the increments between points on a graph |

Force | a push or pull |

Acceleration | change in velocity per unit of time |

Center of mass | balancing point of an object |

Origin | (0,0) |

Volume | amount of space an object occupies |

Terminal veloicity | constant speed a falling reaches when air resistance balances gravity |

Amplitude | amount of swing |

Variable | something that can change or vary in an experiment |

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