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Definitions

Random Pharm Words and definitions

TermDefinition
Withdrawal Symptoms anxiety aggression tremors seizures palpitations
Controlled Substances; Schedule IV Medical use; some abuse potential; Rx needed; Rx expires Ex. phenobarbitual
Pregnancy Category C Adverse effects reported in animals; not available for humans
Pregnancy Category B Studies indicate no risk to animals; not available for humans.
Pregnancy Category X Fetal abnormalities reported. NOT to be used
Pregnancy Category A Studies indicate no risk to human fetus
Pregnancy Category D possible fetus risk in humans reported. However, in selected cases consideration of benefit vs risk may warrant use
Controlled Substances; Schedule I no medical use; high abuse potential street drugs
Controlled Substances; Schedule V OTC; Minimal abuse
Controlled Substances; Schedule III Medical Use; lower potential for abuse; Rx needed; Rx expires Ex. codeine with other meds
Controlled Substances; Schedule II Medical use, high abuse potential. Rx needed (no refills) Ex. Codeine, morphine
Antagonist Effect 2 drugs given together work worse than when given separately
Synergist Effect 2 drugs given together work better than when given alone
Additive Effect 2 drugs given together work equivalently as when give alone *2 drugs that work the same way are given together
Generic Name lower case; longer; more difficult to say Ex. acetominophen
Trade Name Upper case; shorter; easier to say Ex. Tylenol
Drug Rights 1. right patient 2. right time 3. right dose 4. right drug 5. right route 6. right documentation
First-Pass Effect oral and rectal only reduces bioavailability to lesser than 100% *must pass through the liver before entering the blood
Histamine chemical released from cells results in: bronchoconstriction cough edema mucous pain pruritis flushing
Adjuncts to anesthetics benzo and barbs sedative-hypnotics anticholenergics opioids antiememtics neuromuscular blockers
Dyslipidemia High level of lipids
Normal total cholesterol level <200 mg/dl
Normal LDL level <100 mg/dl
Normal HDL level >60 mg/dl
Normal Triglycerides level <150 mg/dl
Combination Diuretics= K sparing + hydrochlorthiazide
Heart Failure Symptoms dyspnea fatigue edema; peripheral and pulmonary
Heart Block very, very slow HR: conduction not getting through
Digoxin Toxicity N/V/D HA confusion bradycardia PVC Visual disturbances: green/yellow halo around bright objects
CHF treatment Traditional: Dig. Diuretics New: ACE ARBs Beta Blockers Diuretics Inotropes Vasodilators
How long does it take for a Parkinson's drug to show effects? weeks to months
Mydriasis pupil dilation anticholinergic S/E
Miosis pupil constriction
What decreases absorption of Levodopa? Vitamin B6, Protein, iron
Parkinson's Disease brain disorder low dopamine, high AcH Bradykinesia postural inability resting tremors pin rolling muscle rigidity
Malignant Hyperthermia Neuromuscular Blocker S/E high fever muscle rigidity tachycardia
Parasympathetic Responses Mostly GI/GU Lower HR increase GI enzymes and secretions and motility bronchoconstriction constrict pupils contract muscles increase bleeding decrease edema relax vascular smooth muscle *NO effect on BP, BS, mental activity or strength
Cardioprotective beta blocker action protects heart from epinephrine and NE that are released after MI
Infiltration IV goes into tissues instead of vein leads to necrosis
Sympathetic Responses ↑BP and CO ↑Blood Flow ↑Metabolism ↑Glycogen breakdown ↑BS ↑Mental ability ↑strength ↑coagulation ↑RR ↑Sweating pupil dialation
Cholinergic Crisis decrease BP/HR; circulatory collapse Cholinergic meds may cause
Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) Cholinergic feed or breed rest and digest ACh
Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) Adernergic Fight or Flight NE
Hypertension Symptoms HA N/V Visual disturbances Disorientation Altered LOC (decreased) Flushed **silent killer--most people have no symptoms
First Dose Phenomenon BP plummets alpha blockers give at night to prevent
How long does it take for antidepressants to work? two-four weeks
Parkinsonism Prolonged antipsychotic drug use Parkinson effects flat affect slow moving pin rolling hunched over
Hypertensive Crisis stroke due to MAOIs reacting with other meds
Dystonia odd mvmt of head and neck S/E of antipsychotics
Akathisia Inability to sit still; motor restlessness Adverse effect of antipsychotics
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Rare, life threatening Fever rigid muscles aggravation antipsychotic drugs S/E
Tardive Dyskinesia involuntary contractions of oral and facial muscles; muscle tension
Serotonin Syndrome Fatal high BP fever tachycardia seizures adverse effects of SSRI
Hypothyroidism Low HR/BP Lethargic cold intolerance low appetite wt gain constipation dry skin **everything slow (low T3 and T4; high TSH)
Hyperthyroidism Treatment surgery radioactive iodine PTU Tapazole Potassium Iodine *drugs take serveral weeks to months to work
Hypothyroidism Treatment levothryoxine
Pancreas synthesize and secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin controls BS and glucose metabolism
Posterior Pituitary Releases...? OT ADH
Hypothalamus Function stimulates and inhibits pituitary homrones
ADH Retains fluids constricts BV Raises BP
Hyperthyroidism Thyroid Storm/ Graves Disease increased HR and BP Heat intolerance restless increases appetite wt loss diarrhea moist, flushed skin **everything moves fast (high T3 and T4; low TSH)
T3 & T4 Thyroid hormones growth, development, metabolism need iodine to produce
Created by: katie.ann0612