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Specific Drug Categories

Depressant general depression lack of interest inability to focus sleep dec muscle tone dec ability to move dec perception coma loss of reflexes resp failure death
Stimulant Wakefulness mental alertness less fatigue hyperactivity excessive talking nervousness insomnia arrhythmia death USES: narcolepsy ADHD Obesity
Antianxiety and Sedative-Hypnotics CNS depressants promote relaxation and sleep also used for spams, seizures, and depression
Antagonist Opioids work quickly expelled quickly stronger used in pregnant women and people who are addicted bind to opioid receptors block transmission of pain impulse
NSAIDs analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic inhibit prostaglandin synthesis inhibit enzymes COX 1 and COX 2 antiplatelet effects ceiling effect combined with opioids
Barbituates inhibits function of nerve cells and potentiate GABA deprive REM sleep low therapuetic index used with caution in elderly no antidote enzyme inducer
Opioids AKA: Narcotic depressant treats pain all routes
Calcium Channel Blockers used for migraines used for chest pains, BP, arrhythmia dilate coronary and peripheral arteries (BP) Decrease contractility (angina) decrease electrical conduction (arrhythmia) grapefruit interacts
Triptans serotonin agonist used cautiously with severe cardiac disease causes vasoconstriction
Benzodiazepines widely used- Rx only mostly PO short term use only tolerance after 2 weeks requires 2-3 days to be effective doesn't suppress REM sleep
Short Acting Insulin 4 hour peak
Long Acting Insulin No peak
Intermediate Acting Insulin 8 hour peak
Rapid Acting Insulin 1 hour peak
Insulin allows sugar into cell cold and clammy-give them some candy given SQ dosed in units check serum glucose know diet and meds check levels before meals
Expectorants Liquefy respiratory secretions PO only
Leukotriene Modifiers blocks Leukotrine, a chemical that causes bronchoconstriction and hypersensitivity *prevents/treats asthma--long term *PO
Corticosteroids always take last rinse mouth afterwords suppresses inflammatory mediator
Adrenergics stimulate B2 adrenergic receptors, which stimulate production of cyclic AMP *bronchodilate
Anticholenergics Bronchodilators synergistic with adrenergic Used for Parkinson's (lower ACH levels)
Antihistamines prohibit histamine action *bronchodilate *decrease congestion and edema *dry up secretions
Antitussives decrease cough center- medulla decrease cough receptors- trachea/lung
Xanthines relaxes smooth muscle bronchodilates stimulate cerebral cortex increase alertness and decrease fatigue check blood serum levels and HR mild diuretic
Mast Cell Stabilizers prevent release of bronchocontrictive and inflammatory substances *prophlyaxis *inhaled
Osmotic Diuretics increase osmotic pressure of glomerular *water pulled from extravascular into blood
Bile Acid Sequestrants binds bile in intestines--forces liver to make more bile from cholesterol
Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors inhibits absorption of cholesterol could be used with statins
Statins HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors allows cholesterol to move instead of building up 6-8 weeks for results take at night monitor liver enzymes
Fibrates increase oxidation of fatty acids and decreases hepatic production of triglycerides. lower VLDL higher HDL Contain -fibr- in word use with caution with statins
K Sparing and Combination Diuretics act as distal tubule to decrease Na resorption and K excretion
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor decrease Na and H2O resorption Risk for acidosis
Loop Diuretics inhibits Na and Cl resorption activate renal prostaglandins risk for neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity given IV
Thiazide Diuretics lower resorption of Na, H2O and Cl and bicarbonate ion in distal convulated tubule
Thrombolytics dissolve clots (MI, DVT, Stroke) end in -ase bleeding
Beta Blockers used for fast arrhythmias
Direct Thrombin Inhibitors inhibit thrombins abillity to convert soluble fibrinogen to fibrin and to activate factors 5, 7, 9 may lead to excessive bleeding and thrombocytopenia
Neuromuscular Blockers Paralyze prevent nerve transmission in skeletal and smooth muscles NEVER given alone
Local/Regional Anesthesia loss of sensation and motor activities peripheral nerve block epidural spinal end in CAINE
Dopamenergic Try to raise dopamine levels in Parkinson's pts.
Amphetamines increase norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin increase mood and alertness do weight and height in children
Angiotensin II Antagonist don't allow angiotensin II to bind to receptors ARBS PO less S/E than ACE Cost more than ACE
Alpha-2 Receptor Agonist decrease norepinephrine production: BV vasodilate reduce activity of renin (lower BP)
ACE inhibitors doesn't allow angiotensin II to be produced decrease vasocontriction decrease Na and H2O retention Protects kidneys in diabetes pts teratogens NO NSAID USE (leads to renal failure)
Nitrates vasodilate decrease cardiac workload dilate coronary arteries *prevent and treat angina
MAOIs 3rd line use for antidepressants used only when no response to others interacts with larger number of drugs and foods
TCA 2nd line antidepressant most PO at night also used for: enuresis pain insomnia
SSRI 1st line antidepressant seratonin receptors Fewer S/E than TCA DO NOT GIVE WITH MAOI
SNRIs 1st line antidepressant higher activity of seratonin and NE in brain
Phenothiazine antipsychotics knock you out block dopamine receptors
Amylin Agonist oral agent SQ shot give with meals use with insulin lower BS after meals slows gastric emptying enhance fullness
Biguanide increases sensitivity of cells decreased glucose production decreased intestional absorption of glucose BID with meals stop 2 days before and after diagnostic tests--can lead to renal failure and lactic acidosis
Sulfonylureas oral agent increase insulin secretions everyday with breakfast
Meglitinides stimuloate release of insulin in response to meal TID AC do not take with sulfonylureas
Incretin Mimetics SQ shot BID before breakfast and dinner used with oral hypoglycemic leads to insulin release in response to hyperglycemia decreases glucagon secretions decreases appetite slows emptying
Thiazolidinediones oral agents aka glitazones take QD
Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors oral agent delays digestion of carbs delays glucose absorption take TID w/ first bite of meals
DPP-4 Inhibitors oral agent PO Qam Leads to insulin release decreases glucagon secretions slows emptying decreases appetite
Created by: katie.ann0612



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